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Organic Semiconductors. ECEN 3913 Cherwa Vang. What are Organic Semiconductors. Organic material with semiconductor properties. http://perepichka-group.mcgill.ca/images/organics2.png. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flexible\_display.jpg. What are Organic Materials?.

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organic semiconductors

Organic Semiconductors

ECEN 3913

Cherwa Vang

what are organic semiconductors
What are Organic Semiconductors
  • Organic material with semiconductor properties.

http://perepichka-group.mcgill.ca/images/organics2.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flexible_display.jpg

what are organic materials
What are Organic Materials?
  • Chemical compounds that include carbon. Often also includes H, O, N.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Methane-2D-stereo.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glucose_chain_structure.svg

history
History
  • 1862 - Henry Letheby obtained a partly conductive material
  • 1950s - researchers discovered that polycyclic aromatic compounds formed semi-conducting salts
  • 1954 - perylene-iodine complex discovered,  conductivity of 0.12 S/cm
  • 1972 -  researchers found metallic like conductivity in Tetrathiafulvalene and Tetracyanoq

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7198/fig_tab/453996a_F1.html

history cont
History (cont)
  • 1977 - Shirakawa et al. reported high conductivity in oxidized and iodine-doped polyacetylene. Received the 2000 Nobel prize in Chemistry for "The discovery and development of conductive polymers“
  • 1987 - The first diode device was reported at Eastman Kodak by Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke
  • 1987, Koezuka and co-workers reported the first organic field-effect transistor (OFET)
  • 1990s - J. H. Burroughes, high efficiency green light emitting polymer (OLED)
applications
Applications
  • Biodegradable electronics
  • Organic Field effect transistor (OFET)
  • Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OLED_EarlyProduct.JPG

materials
Materials
  • Common organic transistors are made of aromatic and conjugated pi-electron systems
  • Examples
    • Benzene
    • Pentacene
    • Pentadiene

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pentacene-3D-balls.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1,3-pentadien.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Benzene-6H-delocalized.svg

m echanics
Mechanics
  • Why aromatic and conjugated molecules?
m echanics1
Mechanics
  • Non aromatic molecules

Ethylene

Acetylene

Ethane

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/hydrogen

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/carbon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethan_Lewis.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethylene-CRC-MW-dimensions-2D.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acetylene-CRC-IR-dimensions-2D.png

mechanics benzene molecule
Mechanics Benzene molecule
  • Aromatic molecules
    • Electrons move around carbon atoms, similar to silicon
  • More efficient with longer chains of benzene rings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatic

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Benzene-aromatic-3D-balls.png

electron flow
Electron Flow
  • Electron flows through the carbon chain
rubrene
Rubrene
  • Used in OLED, and OFET
    • Highest organic mobility 40 cm2/(V·s)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rubrene-3D-spacefill.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rubrene.svg

pentacene
Pentacene
  • Five Benzene Rings fused together
    • Higher mobility than amorphous silicon 5.5 cm2/(V·s)
    • Most studied organic transistor
    • Why so popular?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pentacene.svg

pentacene mixed compounds
Pentacene mixed compounds
  • Pentacene-quinone – oxidized insulating material
  • Buckminsterfullerene - Organic Photovotaic cells
  • Terphenyl – Doping material, proved successful in MASERs.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Buckminsterfullerene-perspective-3D-balls.png

http://www.caslab.com/6-13-pentacenequinone_CAS_3029-32-1/

ofets
OFETs
  • Similar functions to MOSFETs (A) & MESFETs (B)
  • Takes on the Thin Film Transistor (TFT) model (C)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3_FET_strucutre.png

tft architecture
TFT Architecture
  • Why use TFT architecture?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TFT_DIA_BIAS.png

slide17
OLED
  • TFT Architecture
  • Different Organic materials for different colors

http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/oled3.htm

slide18
OLED
  • Different Layers

http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v12/n7/fig_tab/nmat3622_F1.html

http://provideocoalition.com/aadams/story/sony_the_non-technical_technical_guide_to_oled_technology/

why organic transistors
Why Organic transistors?

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/sili2.html

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/germanium

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/arsenic

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/gallium

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/silicon

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/oxygen

organic transistors pros
Organic Transistors Pros:
  • Future material/production cost
  • Flexible & lightweight
  • Higher viewing angle
  • Brighter
  • Better Darker colors
  • Higher response time

http://www.engadget.com/2013/05/19/lg-5-inch-flexible-oled/

http://www.smh.com.au/digital-life/hometech/tvs-get-bigger-bolder-smarter-at-ces-20130109-2cg2a.html

organic transistors cons
Organic Transistors Cons:
  • Present production cost
  • Color balance
  • Life expectancy
  • Water damage

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oled_display_alterung.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nexus_one_screen_microscope.jpg

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