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Hybrid Hard Drives with Non-Volatile Flash and Longhorn. Jack Creasey Program Manager Hardware Innovation Group MSHybrid@Microsoft.com Microsoft Corporation. Session Outline. Demo Introduction Hybrid Hard Disk Architecture Power Savings using NV Cache Demo Results (Power saving)

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hybrid hard drives with non volatile flash and longhorn

Hybrid Hard Drives with Non-Volatile Flash and Longhorn

Jack Creasey

Program ManagerHardware Innovation GroupMSHybrid@Microsoft.com

Microsoft Corporation

session outline
Session Outline
  • Demo Introduction
  • Hybrid Hard Disk Architecture
  • Power Savings using NV Cache
  • Demo Results (Power saving)
  • Faster Boot and Resume Process
  • Demo (Boot and Resume)
  • System Design with the Hybrid Hard Disk
  • Other Design Approaches
  • Next Steps
session goals
Session Goals
  • Attendees should leave this session with the following:
    • An understanding of the power savings that can be achieved using Hybrid Hard Disk technology
    • An understanding of the boot and resume efficiencies that can be achieved using Hybrid Hard Disk with Windows codenamed “Longhorn”
    • An understanding of the increase in MTBF expected from a Hybrid Hard Disk
    • Knowledge of where to find resources to aid in system design using the Hybrid Hard Disk
storage devices key windows strategies
Storage Devices: Key Windows Strategies

Storage FabricsServer/Enterprise

Leading platform supporting storage fabrics

Optimized platform features enabling new customer scenarios in Personal Storage

Personal StorageClient/Consumer

Timely, comprehensive, quality platform support for optical devices

Optical PlatformClient/Consumer

Preferred

Storage Platform

Partner/Customer

Preferred platform for developing, integrating, and deploying storage devices

slide5
Demo
  • Power Savings
why change the disk drive
Why Change the Disk Drive?
  • Consumes 10-15% of the power budget in mobile solutions
  • Slow power up
    • Spin up times can be 2-5 seconds
  • Seek and rotational latency is a performance bottleneck
  • Fragile, shock prone, low MTBF in mobile systems
    • Most common failure point in mobile solutions
    • Failure may result in user data loss
what is a hybrid disk drive
What is a Hybrid Disk Drive?

NV

Cache

Add a non-volatile cache

Dram

Cache

ATA Interface

why is a hybrid hard disk better
Why is a Hybrid Hard Disk Better?
  • Reduce Power Consumption
    • Read and Write disk data while drive is in a low power state with the spindle stopped
  • Faster Boot and Resume
    • Instant access to data in NV Cache
  • Higher Reliability
    • Better shock resistance
    • Lower operating duty cycle
hybrid disk drive benefits
Hybrid Disk Drive Benefits

Up to 90% Power Saving

when powered down

Read and Write instantly while spindle stopped

Dram

Cache

ATA Interface

NV

Cache

technical assumptions for hybrid disk
Technical Assumptions for Hybrid Disk
  • Longhorn* with its advanced memory management is the optimal for caching read data (but not write data)
  • The Hybrid Hard Disk NV Cache is the optimal location for write data
  • NV Cache should be >= 64MB and we recommend 128MB
  • Longhorn* will be able to define data (LBAs) to be Pinned in the NV Cache for Boot and Resume benefits

* Planned for Longhorn Beta 2

flash buffer size for power reduction
Flash Buffer Size for Power Reduction
  • Field data from Windows XP-based PCs
  • Preliminary results:
    • >9,000,000 10min “active use” intervals
    • 93% of 10min active use intervals < 64MB unique data written
power saving mode
Power Saving Mode

Windows Longhorn

DRAM

ATA

Controller

Motherboard

64-128MB

NV Cache

Hard Disk

Controller

  • Windows memory management buffers disk data in System DRAM which fulfills reads
  • Windows puts the HDD into NV Cache mode which spins-down the disk spindle and results in write (and read) IOs to the NV Cache
  • Upon NV cache miss or the NV Cache filling the spindle is spun-up to satisfy reads and flush write data to magnetic media
  • The disk spins-down and continues to use the NV Cache

2.5” HDD

power saving
Power Saving

T

15

s

  • 80% reduction in power can be achieved (from 1.2W to 0.24W)
  • Assumptions
    • Pavg active = 1.2W (measured)
    • Pavg with Flash write buffer and “Longhorn” kernel = 0.18W (calculated)
      • Toff = 600s @ .18W
      • Ton = 15s @ 2.5W
        • Ton = spin-up time (2s) + Flash buffer flush time (13s)
          • Flash buffer size = 128MB
          • Transfer rate = 10MB/s
          • Pavg = ( 600*0.18 + 15*2.5 )/615 = 0.24W

T

>

600

s

off

1.5

Pavg with disk spindle and seek in use = 1.2W

)

W

on

1

(

r

e

Power reduced

0

.

76

W

w

o

0.5

Pavg with flash write buffer = .24W

P

Time

demo results
Demo Results
  • View disk spindown times
cold boot process
Cold Boot Process
  • BIOS runs POST
  • Initializes the disk drive
  • Reads partition table from disk
  • Reads first logical block from bootable volume
  • Reads NTLDR which executes and loads Windows
hybrid disk boot and resume
Hybrid Disk Boot and Resume

Windows Longhorn

DRAM

ATA

Controller

Motherboard

64-128MB

NV Cache

Hard Disk

Controller

  • During shutdown or hibernate all the disk sectors needed to boot or resume are pinned into the NV cache
  • On next power on the BIOS POST runs and the disk is powered on but the spindle won’t be ready for 2-5 seconds
  • BIOS can read data from the NV cache and all boot process IO can be satisfied immediately
  • Once booted or resumed, Longhorn memory management fills system memory with most used disk data
  • Windows puts the HDD into NV Cache mode which spins-down the disk and results in write and read IOs to the NV Cache
  • Upon NV cache Read miss or the NV cache filling, the spindle is spun-up to satisfy Reads and flush cached write data to disk
  • The disk spins-down and continues to use the NV cache

2.5” HDD

slide17
Demo
  • Suspend/resume
system design with hybrid hard disk
System Design with Hybrid Hard Disk
  • Design objective: Enable fast boot/resume and save power
    • Standard motherboard ATA Interface
  • BIOS must exit POST rapidly
    • Fast memory check
    • Fast Chipset initialization
    • Initialize HDD early
  • BIOS must pass to boot loader quickly
    • Fast PNP detection
    • Boot HDD first in boot order
  • Main memory => 512MB
other design approaches considered
Other Design Approaches Considered
  • Flash memory device on the Motherboard
    • Potential corruption if cache and disk separated
    • Only provides partial functionality and requires significant additional design changes
    • Requires new disk driver that owns pinning and cache management
    • BIOS must be able to resolve cache/disk mapping before a driver loads
  • Flash memory and Hybrid disk controller on Motherboard
    • Potential corruption if controller and disk separated
    • Double processes all commands to the disk subsystem
    • Higher cost structure (additional ASIC)
hdd partners
HDD Partners
  • Samsung Electronics – Semiconductor Division
    • Flash product planning team worked with Microsoft on specification of the ATA command set
    • Samsung Semiconductor, together with Seoul National University (SNU) developed the “proof of concept” prototype Hybrid Hard Drive emulator
    • Samsung Electronics has started to develop commercial Hybrid Hard Disk drives
  • Hitachi
    • Worked with Microsoft on specification of the ATA command set
    • Provided feedback on Hybrid Hard Disk power, boot and MTBF models
  • Seagate
    • Worked with Microsoft on specification of the ATA command set
community resources
Community Resources
  • Windows Hardware & Driver Central (WHDC)
    • www.microsoft.com/whdc/default.mspx
  • Technical Communities
    • www.microsoft.com/communities/products/default.mspx
  • Non-Microsoft Community Sites
    • www.microsoft.com/communities/related/default.mspx
  • Microsoft Public Newsgroups
    • www.microsoft.com/communities/newsgroups
  • Technical Chats and Webcasts
    • www.microsoft.com/communities/chats/default.mspx
    • www.microsoft.com/webcasts
  • Microsoft Blogs
    • www.microsoft.com/communities/blogs
relevant mobile platforms presentations
Relevant Mobile Platforms Presentations
  • TWDT05010
    • Building a Longhorn-Ready Mobile PC
  • TWAR05001
    • Longhorn Power Management Update
  • TWAR05002
    • System Performance Assessment Tools For Windows Longhorn
call to action
Call To Action
  • HDD manufacturers should contact Microsoft for information on Hybrid Hard Disk support in Windows OS
    • Implementation Whitepaper
    • ATA Command Set
  • OEMs Contact Hybrid Hard Disk Partners to plan OEM certification process
  • OEMs need to include testing on Hybrid disk functionality at Longhorn Beta Two release
  • Contact MSHybrid @ Microsoft.com with any questions.