G roup w ork a) how to ensure everybody's participation b) how to form groups. Content. Why do group work? How to set up pair and group work General strategies Designing group work Allocation of roles and tasks Organizing learning groups Conflict Criticism
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It is veryimportant to tell studentsexactly what they should do. In addition to a well-definedtask, everygroupneeds to knowhow to start, when the task is done, and someguidance about the participation of members. Alsoexplainhowstudentswill be graded.
Many students have neverworked in collaborativelearning groups and may need practice in such skills as active and tolerantlistening, helping one another in masteringcontent, giving and receivingconstructivecriticism, and managingdisagreements. Discuss these skills with yourstudents and model and reinforce them during class.
Thestudents in a group must perceive that they "sink or swim" together, that each member is responsible to and dependent on all the others, and that one cannotsucceedunlessall in the groupsucceed. Strategies for promoting interdependence includespecifyingcommonrewards for the group, encouragingstudents to divide up the work, and formulatingtasks that forcestudents to reach a consensus (opinion which allstudentsagree with).
Students must perceive the grouptasks as integral to the courseobjectives. It is believed that groups succeedbest with tasksinvolvingjudgment, e.g. Each groupprepares a report, and a representative from each group is selected to present the group's solution. The approachesused by the various groups are compared and discussed by the entireclass.
Try to structure the tasksso that each groupmember can make an equalcontribution. All the members work together to include the individualcontributionsinto the final report.
Self-selected groups seem to work best in smallclasses. Still other teachersprefer to form the groups themselves. They form groups of better students and weakerones to makesure that members of each groupparticipate.
Ingeneral, groups of four or fivemembers work best. Larger groups decrease each member's opportunity to participateactively.
The less skillful the groupmembers are, the smaller the groups should be. The shorteramount of time available is, the smaller the groups should be.
When a group is not working well, avoidbreaking it up, even if the grouprequests it. When you try to formnew groups you can throw off successful groups processes. Beside that, members of the troubledgroup should learn to cope with its unproductiveinteractions.
Ask each group to devise a plan of action: whowill be doing what and when.
(Ways toensure that studentsknow what is done in the groupincludegiving spot quizzes to be completedindividually and calling on individualstudents to present their group's progress. )
Askgroupmembers to discuss two questions: What action has each membertaken that was helpful for the group? What actioncould each membertake to make the group even better? (At the end of the project, askstudents to complete a briefevaluationform on the effectiveness of the group and its members.)
We can grade thisway:
Giveallmembers of the group the samemarks.
Grade studentsindividually. (Thisinevitablyleads to competition within the group and thussubverts the benefits of group work.)
Grade the contribution of each student on the basis of individual test scores or the group's evaluation of each member's work.
1. Compound words (cross – word)
2. Word parts (num – ber)
3. Idioms (an Achilles´ - heel)
4. Proverbs (A barking dog – never bites.)
5. Question + Answer (How old are you? – I am 13.)
6. Problem + Solution (car problem – car mechanic)
7. Object + Object (knife – fork)
8. Famous pairs (Shrek – Fiona)
9. Antonyms (good - bad)
10. Synonyms (grandfather – grandpa)
1. Synonyms (postpone – put off – delay)
(statement - reaction – statement, e.g. Can you help me, please? - Yes, what happened? – I have a problem with my car.)
(cat – dog – mouse / teacher – cook – shop assistant)
1. Picture puzzle (parts of pictures to be matched)
2. Common denominator (run – jump – walk – go / write – draw – type – paint)