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Subpart L-Scaffold Safety 1926.451-453. Vincent J. Giblin, General President. Phone: (304) 253-8674 Fax: (304) 253-7758 E-mail: hazmat@iuoeiettc.org. 1293 Airport Road Beaver, WV 25813.

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slide1

Subpart L-Scaffold Safety

1926.451-453

Vincent J. Giblin, General President

Phone: (304) 253-8674

Fax: (304) 253-7758

E-mail: hazmat@iuoeiettc.org

1293 Airport Road

Beaver, WV 25813

slide2

This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

introduction
Introduction
  • Subpart L specifies the requirements needed
  • to safely erect scaffolds or staging.
  • Scaffolds are temporary platforms workers
  • use in order to access their work area and to
  • hold the supplies needed for that job.
  • Because of the locations and dangers involved,
  • only trained and competent persons are to erect
  • scaffolds at the job site.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirements
  • All scaffolds are to be
  • capable of supporting,
  • without failure, at least
  • 4 times the maximum
  • intended load.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Never allow debris/materials to collect on
  • scaffold
  •  Always use netting to catch anything that falls
  •  Make sure scaffold is secure

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions1
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Do not stand
  • on ties,
  • guardrails,
  • or extensions

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions2
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Do not overreach
  • outside the guardrails

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions3
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Stay off scaffold during loading or unloading
  •  Replace guardrails after loading or unloading
  •  Use 3-point climbing
  •  Don’t hang tarps without evaluation
  •  Exit mobile scaffolds before moved

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safety precautions4
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafety Precautions
  •  Always wear
  • fall protection
  • to avoid
  • accidents

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements footing or anchorage
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsFooting or Anchorage
  • The footing or anchorage
  • is to be on a solid foundation;
  • sound, rigid, and capable of
  • carrying the maximum
  • intended load without
  • settling or displacement.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements footing or anchorage1
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsFooting or Anchorage
  • The use of unstable
  • objects to support
  • planks or scaffolds
  • is prohibited.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements guardrails
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsGuardrails
  • The use of guardrails is very
  • important, preventing workers
  • from falling. Nearly 3/4 of
  • the reported scaffold accidents
  • are caused by improper
  • guarding.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements guardrails1
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsGuardrails
  • Open-ended or open-
  • sided platforms must
  • have standard
  • guardrails and
  • toeboards.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements guardrails2
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsGuardrails
  • The guardrails are to be 2 X 4 and about 42”
  • high with a midrail whenever needed. The
  • supports for the guardrails are to be at
  • intervals no more than 8 feet.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements protective screening
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsProtective Screening
  • Overhead protection shall be provided for
  • men on scaffolds and, in the same sense,
  • a screen is to be placed
  • below the scaffold
  • where persons may in
  • danger of falling objects.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safe platforms
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafe Platforms
  • Scaffold construction is to
  • be with the proper grade
  • lumber with a minimum of
  • 1,500 fibers (Stress Grade).
  • This lumber is marked with
  • a grading stamp and is free
  • of defects.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safe platforms1
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafe Platforms
  • The planking is to be of Scaffold Grade wood
  • or metal, free of defects that may contribute to
  • an accident.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safe platforms2
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafe Platforms
  • The planking shall be
  • overlapping or secured
  • from movement,
  • extending not less than
  • 6 nor more than 12”
  • over their end supports.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safe platforms3
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafe Platforms
  • The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall
  • be plumb (vertical members standing
  • perpendicular to horizon) and securely and
  • rigidly braced to prevent swaying and
  • displacement.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safe platforms4
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafe Platforms
  • Only synthetic or fiber rope
  • that has been treated properly
  • may be used as staging
  • support where open flame
  • work or corrosive
  • substances or chemicals
  • will be used.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safe platforms5
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafe Platforms
  • Any means of support for scaffold suspension
  • shall be capable of supporting at least 6 times
  • the rated load.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements safe access
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsSafe Access
  • In order for workers to avoid
  • injuries when getting on or off
  • the platform, internal stairs or
  • attached vertical ladders will
  • be used.Never use the frame
  • or braces for climbing!

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding general requirements design load
1926.451 ScaffoldingGeneral requirementsDesign load
  • The design load of all scaffolds shall be
  • calculated on the basis of:
  • Light--Supporting 25 lbs per square foot
  • Medium--Supporting 50 lbs. Per square foot
  • Heavy-- Supporting 75 lbs. Per square foot

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of Scaffolds
  • This standard covers many different scaffold
  • types. We will touch briefly on the three
  • basic types that are most commonly used in
  • the construction industry.
  • 1. Suspension Scaffolds
  • 2. Supported Scaffolds
  • 3. Aerial Lifts (Subpart N)

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds hung from an overhead structure
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)
  • Single-point adjustable suspension-
  • These may be power units (either
  • electrically or air motor driven) or
  • manually operated winches. All power
  • operated gears and brakes shall be
  • enclosed.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds hung from an overhead structure1
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)
  • Two-point suspension- Theses scaffolds are to be securely lashed to the building or structure to prevent them from swaying.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds hung from an overhead structure2
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)
  • Multi-point suspension- Capable of
  • sustaining a working load of 25 pounds
  • per square foot. The platform shall be
  • securely fastened to the hangers by U-
  • bolts or other equivalent means.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds hung from an overhead structure3
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)
  • Needle beam- Ropes or hangers used as
  • supports, shall be attached to the needle
  • beams by a scaffold hitch or a properly
  • made eye splice. The loose end of the
  • rope shall be tied by a bowline knot or by
  • a round turn and a half hitch.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds hung from an overhead structure4
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds (hung from an overhead structure)
  • Interior hung- Hung or suspended from
  • the roof structure or ceiling beams by rope
  • capable of supporting at least 6 times the
  • rated load.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds
  • The workers on these scaffolds are to wear fall protection at all times.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds1
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds
  • These suspension scaffolds must:
  •  Be solidly attached to a structure
  •  Be regularly serviced and inspected
  •  Have proper guardrails, netting, and toeboards
  •  Be at least 20” wide but no wider than 36”

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds2
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds
  • Upon meeting these requirements, the platform
  • can be one of four types:
  •  Plank type
  •  Beam-type
  •  Light metal-type
  •  Ladder-type

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds3
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds
  • The scaffold unit shall be suspended from
  • metal outriggers, iron brackets, wire rope
  • slings, or iron hooks, inspected daily by a
  • competent person. Supporting parts are to be
  • inspected before every installation and
  • periodically inspected during use.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds suspension scaffolds4
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSuspension Scaffolds
  • Suspension scaffolds are hung by:
  •  Outrigger beam with counterweights
  •  Rolling outrigger beam with counterweights
  •  Parapet clamps
  •  Roof hook or cornice hook

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds supported scaffolds
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSupported Scaffolds
  • These scaffolds are raised on posts, uprights,
  • frames, or outrigger beams. They may also be
  • mounted on trucks or casters.
  •  Tube and coupler  Pole
  •  Frame  Mobile

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds supported scaffolds1
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSupported Scaffolds
  •  Tube and coupler scaffolds- Have limited heights to be followed using tables L-10-L-12. Light, medium, and heavy duty tube and coupler scaffolds are to follow specified requirements for the appropriate categories, all of which are to hold 4 times the maximum intended loads.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds supported scaffolds2
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSupported Scaffolds
  • Pole - Scaffold poles shall bear on a
  • foundation of sufficient size and strength to
  • spread the load from the pole over a sufficient
  • area to prevent settlement. Independent pole
  • scaffolds shall be set as near to the wall of the
  • building as practicable.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds supported scaffolds3
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSupported Scaffolds
  • Frame - Proper cross bracing or diagonal
  • bracing is to be used for securing vertical
  • members together laterally with coupling or
  • stacking pins to provide proper vertical
  • alignment of the legs.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds supported scaffolds4
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSupported Scaffolds
  • Mobile - When free-
  • standing mobile scaffold
  • towers are use, the height
  • shall not exceed four
  • times the minimum base
  • dimension.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds supported scaffolds5
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSupported Scaffolds
  • Mobile - When using
  • casters, they are to have
  • a positive locking
  • device to hold the
  • scaffold in position.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 451 scaffolding types of scaffolds supported scaffolds6
1926.451 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsSupported Scaffolds
  • Mobile - A ladder or
  • stairway, affixed to or
  • built into the scaffold,
  • shall provide proper
  • access and exit

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 453 scaffolding types of scaffolds manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds
This section applies

to ladder stands

(not aerial) and

rolling scaffolds (towers).

1926.453 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsManually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 453 scaffolding types of scaffolds manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds1
Due to the wide variety of materials and design possibilities, specified design and construction requirements are not a part of this section. 1926.453 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsManually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 453 scaffolding types of scaffolds manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds2
The minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20 inches for mobile scaffolds. Ladder stands shall have a minimum step width of 16 inches, with all exposed surfaces free from sharp edges, burrs or other safety hazards.1926.453 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsManually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 453 scaffolding types of scaffolds manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds3
Wheels or casters shall

be properly designed for

strength and dimensions

to support four times the

design working load.

1926.453 ScaffoldingTypes of ScaffoldsManually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • These are vehicle-mounted
  • elevating and rotating work
  • platforms such as ladder
  • trucks and tower trucks.
  • Aerial lifts are to be
  • operated only by
  • authorized persons.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n1
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower
  • traveling position by the locking device on top
  • of the truck cab, and the manually operated
  • device at the base of the ladder before the
  • truck is moved for highway travel.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n2
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Never move an aerial lift
  • truck when the boom is
  • elevated in a working
  • position with men in the
  • basket, except where
  • specifically designed for
  • this type of operation.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n3
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Lifts that are used primarily as personnel
  • carriers must have both platform (upper) and
  • lower controls. The lower controls are to
  • override the upper controls, never to be used
  • without permission from the employee in the
  • lift, except in emergencies.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n4
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:
  •  Always stand firmly
  • on the floor of the
  • basket and not sit or
  • climb on the edge

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n5
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:
  •  Wear a body belt
  • and have a lanyard
  • attached to the
  • boom or basket
  • for fall protection

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n6
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • While working on aerial lifts, employees shall:
  •  Keep within specified load limits
  •  Use brakes and wheel chocks when needed

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

1926 556 aerial lifts subpart n7
1926.556 Aerial lifts (Subpart N)
  • Examples:
  •  Telescoping
  •  Rotating boom
  •  Scisor type

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program

slide54

This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

slide55
End
  • This publication was made possible by grant numbers 5 U45 ES06182-13 AND 5 U45 ES09763-13 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.

Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program