IMMIGRATION: THE GILDED AGE Changing Demographics
Immigrants came to American shores for many reasons. • To escape Famine • To gain land • To find religious or political freedom • Some Immigrants only intended to stay in America for a short time and then to return to their homes. They were known as “Birds of Passage” WHY?
European • Escape religious persecution • Rising populations @ home • Between 1800 & 1900 the European population doubled • Too few Jobs • Lives free of government control WHY?
Chinese & Japanese • They arrived on the West coast in smaller numbers than the European immigrants. • Came to get jobs with the American Railroad CO. • Came to find fortune : Gold Rush • The Japanese government allowed the Hawaiian government recruit in Japan for planters. • With the annexation of Hawaii in 1898 Japanese immigration to US increased. WHY?
The old immigrants: from northern or western Europe English speaking, white Protestant literate and skilled came over as families quick to assimilate experienced in the ways of democracy had some money tall and fair many went to country to farm Old Immigrants 1840-1880 England, Scotland, Sweden, Germany, Ireland, China, Japan and Mexico.
The new immigrants. . . came from southern or eastern Europe did not speak English not Protestant--were Catholic, Orthodox, Jewish illiterate and unskilled came over as birds of passage reluctant to assimilate; congregated in cities by ethnic community (Chinatown, Little Italy) radical or autocratic arrived impoverished were short and dark New Immigrants1880-1930 Italians, Polish, and Eastern European Jews
It is located at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor. main entry facility estimated 17 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island
20 % of immigrants at Ellis Island were detained for inspection • 1st: Physical Examination • Anyone with a disease, or serious health problem were sent home • Questioning to determine legal requirements • Prove that they had never been convicted of a felony • Demonstration an ability to work, • Show that they possessed money Admittance
Located in San Francisco Bay The Immigration Station on the northeast corner of the island processed approximately one million Asian immigrants (primarily Chinese) Between 1910 & 1940 about 50,000 Chinese immigrants entered the US through Angel Island Angel Island
Immigrants endured harsh questioning • A long detention period was required • Immigrants were forced to live in filthy ramshackle buildings while waiting to find out whether they would be admitted or rejected. Admittance
As immigration increases strong anti immigrant feelings emerged • Nativism: favoritism to American-born • Laundromats in San Francisco against Chinese • Xenophobia : fear of different races Immigration Restrictions
The Rise of Nativism • Nativism gave rise to anti- immigrant groups and led to a demand for immigration restrictions. • “New Immigrants” caused an increase in nativism because they were very different from average Americans and did not assimilate quickly.
Nativist Laws • many union disliked foreigners for “taking their jobs” • as city life grew, filth and disease associated with cities became associated with immigrant groups • Nativism found a foothold in the labor movement particularly in the West • i.e.Chinese and Irish accept low wages
1850: Foreign Miners Tax • placed tax on non-native born miners in CA gold rush • IE: Chinese, Japanese, German • 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act • It decreased Chinese immigration. The act prohibited Chinese from immigrating and/or becoming citizens (stirred by large number of Chinese in CA) • Ultimately it totally banned Chinese From America Nativist Laws
1908: Gentlemen’s Agreement • It decreased Japanese immigration. It was an agreement between U.S. and Japan to halt immigration of Japanese to U.S. – helped Japan who feared losing it’s “best and brightest” and U.S. who feared losing it’s “white” culture • 1924: Immigration Act Set immigration quotas of 3% based on immigration in 1890 (highly favored Northern and Western European immigrants Nativist Laws
What do the shadows represent? • What Gilded age ideal do the men on the dock represent?
A result of immigration and the increased productivity of factory jobs Urbanization: The Result of rapid city growth as a result of the technological boom in the 19th century.
Most immigrants lived in Cities. • They were Cheap • Cities were convenient places to live • Offered unskilled laborers steady jobs in factories • This was an effort to assimilate • Rich cultural atmoshpere • BY 1910 immigrant families made up more than half the total population of the 18 major American cities. City Settlement
Designed to assimilate people of various cultures into the dominant culture. • Sponsored by the United States Government • Schools and Voluntary associations provided assimilation programs • Teach English Language • Cooking • Social Etiquette Americanization Movement
Housing Transportation Water Sanitation Crime Fire Urban Problems
Two housing options • Buy a house outside town and commute • Rent cramped rooms in boarding houses • As Urban population increased new housing was designed • Tenements: Multifamily urban dwellings • Rat infested • Dirty, disease ridden • overcrowded Housing
Transportation • Mass Transit: Transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes. • Cities struggled to repair old transit systems & build new ones to meet the demand of expanding populations • Water • Most homes in large cities seldom had indoor plumbing and residents had to collect water in pails from faucets on the street • Water quality improvement was vital to controlling diseases such as cholera & typhoid fever • Filtration was introduced in the 1870s and chlorination in 1908 • Sanitation • City growth caused an increase in sanitation problems • Horse manure piled up on the streets, sewage overflowed from gutters, factories released chemicals in the air • People dumped garbage on streets (no trash pick up) • By 1900 many cities had developed sewer lines and created sanitation departments.
Fire Cities were packed with wooden living structures Sever limited water supply Use of Kerosene and heaters posed fire hazards Most firefighters originally were volunteers and not always available when needed. First paid FDP was in 1853 CrimePickpockets and thieves thrived during urbanizationNY City organized the 1st full time Police Force 1844
As problems in cities increased Social welfare reformers targeted relief for urban poverty Reformers
Social Gospel movement • Preached salvation through service to the poor. • Settlement houses • founded in the late 1800s by social reformers. • run by middle-class, college-educated women • Americanization Movement • Designed to assimilate people of various cultures into the dominant culture. • Provided educational, cultural and social services • i.e. English, health, painting, and college extension courses. • helped to cultivate social responsibility toward the urban poor. Settlement House Movement
They were founded by • Charles Stover • Stanton Coit • Ellen Gates Starr • Lillian Wald • Robert A Wood • Jane Addams :One of the most influential members of the movement, she won a Nobel Peace Prize Settlement House Movement