Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004
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Luquillo Biocomplexity Meeting January 2004. Hydrology overview Stream-Hydrology issues Pike/Scatena research plan. Steep Environmental Gradients Subtropical Dry (1200 mm/yr) to Wet (5000mm/yr) Windward vs leeward. Hydrology Overview. Steep Environmental Gradients

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Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004
Luquillo Biocomplexity Meeting January 2004

  • Hydrology overview

  • Stream-Hydrology issues

  • Pike/Scatena research plan


Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004


Hydrology overview
Hydrology Overview

  • Steep Environmental Gradients

  • Maritime climate with high rainfall frequency minor seasonality

    • 3 rain showers/day, High interception,

    • Intense rainfalls; >500 mm/day, 125 mm/day threshold; Hurricanes, TS, northern fronts

  • Dynamic disturbance regime

    • Hurricanes, landslides, tree-falls

    • Old on inside-young on outside



Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Forest Wide Temperature

Based on regression of Temp vs elevation, aspect


Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Wet Season

Dry Season


Hydrology overview1
Hydrology Overview

  • Steep Environmental Gradients

  • Maritime climate with high rainfall frequency minor seasonality

  • Dynamic disturbance regime

    • Hurricanes, landslides, tree-falls

    • “Old on inside-young on outside”


Hillslope processes
Hillslope processes

  • Deep Clayey soils; 6 + m of saprolite

    • Volcanoclastics vs Grandiorite

  • Hillslope Catena’s

  • Shallow flow paths; < 1 m

    • through-flow vs overland flow

    • soil compaction, trail erosion

  • Landslides; 1000-2000 yr turnover

    • roads, elevation, bedrock

    • Larsen, Zarin, Walker


Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Bisley Hillslope profile

Soil and saprolite 10-20 m thick

Storage; at 1% water content = 100-200 mm; 1 month throughfall



Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Storm hydrographs recharge

H20

Na, Mg

Ca, CL


Stream channel hydrology
Stream Channel Hydrology recharge

  • Headwaters

    • Steep gradient, boulders, structural control

    • Supply limited

    • “clean water”

  • Coastal plain

    • Alluvial and channelized

    • Relatively stable planform morphology

    • Aggradation/degradation cycle


Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Annual 7 day recharge

Minimum

Q90

Q50

Xiphocaris spp. Night

Atya spp. Night


Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Daily Discharge Series recharge

No Extraction

Extraction = Q95, No Minimum In-stream Flow

Extraction = Q95, Minimum In-stream Flow = Q99


General hydrologic land use issues
General Hydrologic/land use issues recharge

  • Municipal water withdrawal

    • aquatic migrations

  • Urbanization

  • Reservoir sedimentation

    • USGS, landslides

  • Coastal Plain deforestation

    • RAMS model


Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Regional-scale changes recharge

Synoptic

Systems

Tradewinds

Energy &

Moisture

Land-Sea

Tectonic

Uplift

Sea

Level


On going research efforts
On-going research efforts recharge

  • GIS based-statistical models

    • Garcia; low flow prediction, Rivera; peak discharges, Santos; island wide water chemistry

  • Simulation models

    • Hall SUNY-ESF; Soil carbon, ET

  • Interception and cloud forest hydrology

    • Free University of Amsterdam

  • Stream water chemistry, N cycling

    • W. McDowell, UNH

  • Instream flows and water withdrawals

    • Pringle UGA


Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

Roads recharge

Communication

Facilities

Water

Intakes

Roads &

Maintenance

Buildings


Stream road issues hydrologic issues
Stream/road issues rechargeHydrologic issues

  • Freeze-thaw

  • Groundwater discharge

  • Flooding

    • overbank, diversion flooding

  • Erosion of unpaved roads

  • Damage to bridges and culverts

  • Landslides


  • Stream road chemical issues
    Stream/Road-Chemical issues recharge

    • Applied chemicals (e.g. road salt..)

      • minor herbicide use

    • Road material

      • asphalt, dirt

    • Emissions

      • Odum Co2

      • Chemical spills

    • Swimming


    Social considerations
    Social considerations recharge

    • Social significance of Luquillo Streams

    • Seasonality of recreation

      • locals vs snowbirds

      • don’t go to beach in months with “R”

    • Short travel distances and short storms

    • Shystostomisis and “dirty” streams

    • Swimming skills



    Channel morphology aquatic habitat
    Channel morphology-aquatic habitat recharge

    • GIS-Statistical based approach

      • Develop null then evaluate road crossings

    • Work Plan

      • Aug 2003; channel cross-sections

      • Fall 03; GIS layers

      • Jan 2004; pebble counts

      • Spring 04; develop manuscript I

      • Summer 04; Espirtu Santo, bridges

      • 2005; bridge habitat analysis, water falls…


    Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

    Slope Raster recharge


    Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

    Channel slope vs Drainage area recharge

    Sonodora= 2.6 km2

    Puente Roto = 17.8 km2

    Mameyes at RT3 = 34.7 km2



    Luquillo biocomplexity meeting january 2004

    Slope recharge

    Mean grain size/Basin area