An Outline of Washback. Definition Conceptualization of washback Manipulation of washback Empirical studies on washback. Please God may I not fail Please God may I get over sixty percent Please God may I get a high place Please God may all those likely to beat me
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Conceptualization of washback
Manipulation of washback
Empirical studies on washback
Please God may I get over sixty percent
Please God may I get a high place
Please God may all those likely to beat me
get killed in road accidents and
may they die roaring.
- Washback (backwash)
- Curricular alignment
- Systemic validity
- An instance of consequential aspect of construct validity
- Debate over incorporating washback into the concept of validity
Messick, Morrow, Popham, Mehrense,
Li Xiaju, Linn Alderson, Davis
“The best way of encouraging adequate consideration of major intended positive effects and plausible unintended negative effects of test use is to recognize the evaluation of such effects as a central aspect of test validation" Linn (1997:16).
“The apparent open-ended offer of consequential validity goes too far. I maintain that it is not possible for a tester as a member of a profession to take account of all possible social consequences" Davis (1997:335).
use of test score
- The Scope, Pattern, and Mechanisms of Washback
Bachman and Palmer (1996:30)
(1) A test will influence teaching.
(2) A test will influence learning.
(3) A test will influence what teachers teach: and
(4) A test will influence how teachers teach; and therefore by extension
from (2) above:
(5) A test will influence what learners learn: and
(6) A test will influence how learners learn.
(7) A test will influence the rate and sequence of teaching: and
(8) A test will influence the rate and sequence of learning.
(9) A test will influence the degree and depth of teaching: and
(10) A test will influence the degree and depth of learning.
(11) A test will influence attitudes to the content, method, etc. of teaching and learning.
(12) Tests that have important consequences will have washback; and conversely
(13) Tests that do not have important consequences will have no washback.
(14) Tests will have washback on all learners and teachers.
(15) Tests will have washback effects for some learners and some teachers, but not for others.
In contrast to a high-stakes test,
a low-stakes test is one which is perceived as not having important rewards or sanctions tied directly to test performance.
Test as an agent for change
- The Sri Lanka English test
(lever for change)
- The Hong Kong CEE
(tail wags the dog)
- The NMET
The Intended Washback Effect of the National Matriculation English Test in China: Intentions and Reality