Ancient Egypt’s New Kingdom: Power and Celebrity. Recall:. Egypt was conquered during the Middle Kingdom by the Hyksos (a generalized term for outsiders from the north-east) The Hyksos assimilated into Egyptian culture though they remained “foreigners”
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Recall: • Egypt was conquered during the Middle Kingdom by the Hyksos • (a generalized term for outsiders from the north-east) • The Hyksos assimilated into Egyptian culture though they remained “foreigners” • After a successful revolt in 1550BCE, Egypt entered the era known as the New Kingdom armed with new weapons and strong pharaohs ready to spread Egyptian influence beyond the Nile Valley.
Ancient Egyptian Ranged Weapons • Composite Bow • Bow string is permanently under stress greatly enhancing the possible force War Chariot • Despite its clumsiness and tendency to flip the chariot was used because of multiple advantages over horseback archers
Ancient Egyptian Infantry Weapons • Mace • A club with a heavy stone fastened to it – phased out with the use of body armour by Egypt’s enemies • mace Sickle Sword khopesh • the iconic weapon of the New Kingdom Egypt many pharos are depicted holding one in their conquests • Battle Axe • As armour evolved, so too did weapons the battle axe took advantage of the availability of bronze to craft weapons in the middle kingdom
Celebrity Pharaohs - Hatshepsut Rule: 1503-1482 BCE Bio: After her father died she assumed power in Egypt, though not officially until after the death of her sickly brother. She would reign until her death though technically she was just ruling as queen dowager until her nephew came of age • Why She’s Awesome: • She had the charisma to maintain leadership as a woman in a deeply traditional society • became “king” in the eyes of her people including wearing the false beard! • Used her lineage as daughter of a popular pharaoh and success in establishing trade alliances in Somalia to firm up support and rule even after a legitimate male heir was of age to rule
Celebrity Pharaohs - Amenhotep IV The “Heretic” Pharaoh Rule: 1353-1334BCE BCE Bio: Changed his name to Akhenton “the servant of Aten” to reflect his devotion to the new monotheistic god he invented named Aten – the sun • Why He’s Awesome: • Single-handedly dismantled the powerful priesthood class that existed – closed all temples and took their revenue • Set himself as the only mediator between god and the people – the ultimate god-king • At age 12 married Nefertiti (18) who is famous for being shockingly beautiful and was the subject of the bust shown here…
Celebrity Pharaohs - Tutankhamun King “Tut” Rule: 1334-1225 BCE Bio: Born Tutankhaten son of the Heretic King he changed his name to reflect his devotion to the old god amon and reopened the old temples, undoing the work of his father. Died at age 18 • Why He’s Awesome: • Is the only pharaoh who ANYONE can name • Perhaps the only pharaoh who may have served his afterlife duty because of his careful placement in the Valley of Kings • Burried in multiple coffins the inner most one made with 100kg of pure gold • King Tut’s curse – those who found his tomb in 1922 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kfO9k6CXrU • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LCpJHJneBZ4
Celebrity Pharaohs - Ramesses II Ramesses the Great Rule: 1300-1213 BCE Bio: Lived 96 years, had 200 wives and concubines and fathered over 150 children! • Why He’s Awesome: • See the wives and children thing… interesting a popular brand of contraceptives would be named for him • His invasion of the Hittite Empire culminating in a stalemate at the Battle of Kadesh led to the world’s first “peace treaty” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=axttkV4Gs8c