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12 th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation. Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector Policies Tuesday November 15 (10:45- 12:15). 12 th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation.

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12th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector PoliciesTuesday November 15 (10:45- 12:15)

12th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector Policies

Bridging the Digital Divide in India – Lessons from EgyptSanjeev Kumar Sharma

Presentation outline



Presentation Outline


Policy Initiatives - Lessons from Egypt

Suggestions on Implementation in India

Sanjeev K Sharma

Telecom revolution in india the myth

  • 72% of Indian Population Lives in Villages

  • 741 million live in over 600 thousand Villages

  • Absence of basic infrastructure like Electricity, Road & Telecom has resulted in poor socio-economic growth

  • Literacy rate 49.4% as compared to 70% in urban areas

  • Every 3 out of 4 villages do not have primary health centers

  • Result – 72% of population contributes to only 24% of GDP

  • The lack of policy initiatives is reflected in widening digital divide between rural and urban India

Sanjeev K Sharma

Telecom revolution in india the myth1

  • Source – Telecom Regulatory Authority of India’s website

Sanjeev K Sharma

Telecom revolution in india the myth2

  • The trend of infrastructure building in rural areas is on decline and this is alarming

  • Immediate need for policy intervention

  • Digital divide is worldwide phenomenon and we can learn from other similarly emerging economies

  • International perspective indicates thrust on building information society by access to information through internet

Sanjeev K Sharma

Reasons for poor ict penetration in rural india

  • Sparsely populated

  • Poor purchasing power

  • Supporting infrastructure like electricity and transport in poor conditions

  • Unavailability of technical manpower

  • Low business volumes

    All this results in high infrastructure set-up costs, low returns and high operational costs - Typical cart and horse situation

Sanjeev K Sharma

Digital divide the international perspective

  • The ICT development indices report released by United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) shows that during 1995-2002 countries like Egypt, Mexico, China & South Korea have shown remarkable progress in increasing the penetration of ICT amongst masses.

Sanjeev K Sharma

Digital divide the international perspective1

  • rapid growth in telecommunications have been either demand driven like in China or state-pushed like in South Korea and Egypt.

  • The growth of ICT in urban India has been mainly demand driven. BUT

  • To increase the penetration of ICT in rural India will require greater policy leadership and initiative from state.

  • Hence policy initiatives in Egypt are of special interest to india

Sanjeev K Sharma

Policy initiatives lessons from egypt
Policy Initiatives - Lessons from Egypt

  • Egypt rose sharply ICT diffusion index ranking from 154th to 112th position

  • Since 1999 MCIT in Egypt has launched several policy initiatives to build it’s information society

  • For success all policies focus on three aspects

Policy Success

1. Awareness

3. Affordability

2. Accessibility

Sanjeev K Sharma

Policy initiatives lessons from egypt1
Policy Initiatives - Lessons from Egypt

  • Egypt’s overall dream of building information society and bridging the digital divide is based on three pillars of policy initiatives

    • Build extensive R & D capacities

    • Provide conducive regulatory framework

    • ICT capacity building in community through various e-Access policy initiatives like

      • Free Internet access

      • IT Clubs

      • PC for community

      • ICT trust fund

      • Mobile ICT units

      • Smart school network etc.

Sanjeev K Sharma

Policy initiatives lessons from egypt2
Policy Initiatives - Lessons from Egypt

PC for Community

  • Started in Nov 2002 by MCIT

  • To achieve PC penetration of 1 for every 3 families

  • Aim – sale 6 million PCs in next 7 years

  • Easy credit facility to be paid in 40 installments

  • Collaboration with 22 hardware providers

  • Verification, sales facilitation, internet provision and installment collection by Telecom Egypt

  • Tie up with National Bank of Egypt & BankeMishr and Insurance agency

  • MCIT monitors program and performance of private partners

  • Xceed call center to built awareness

  • Advantages - Tremendous boost to sale of PC , employment generation, employment generation, capacity building, export

Sanjeev K Sharma

Suggestions on implementation in india
Suggestions on Implementation in India


- Coordinate the activities of various partners

- Provide finance through USO fund

- Will enlist local PC manufacturers and monitor performance

- Coordinate with various ministries for tax exemptions

- Will negotiate rates for supply of PCs and software


- Verification of credentials of loan-seekers

- Collection of monthly installments though telephone bills

- Free internet access for PC buyers for one year (Claim compensation from USO fund)

- Implement scheme through its teleshoppes (Sales outlets)

“Own Your PC”

Responsibilities of various partners


- Provide finance with 36 installments

- Provide PC for connectivity with BSNL server for credential verification and installment collection

- Financing the projects of enlisted PC manufacturers

PC manufacturers and software providers

- Develop local language applications

- Develop component level manufacturing capabilities

- Will get tax exemptions on sale of PCs

- Provide at least 36 month warranty

- Develop sales and service centers

Sanjeev K Sharma

Policy initiatives lessons from egypt3
Policy Initiatives - Lessons from Egypt

IT Club Policy

  • Started by MCIT to provide access to technology in under-privileged areas on shared access basis

  • Aim at setting up 2800 Clubs by June 2007, 1000 already operational with average 1000 users per club

  • Tackles affordability and accessibility

  • Nominal fee of about 0.2 USD per hour

  • Government provide hardware and private partner provides infrastructure

  • Training the trainer program provides employment

  • Software library, surfing, training available to users

  • International partnerships with Microsoft, UNDP, Korea

  • Software application in Arabic

  • Advantages – Employment, entrepreneur development, Use by small businessmen, increased computer literacy,

Sanjeev K Sharma

Suggestions on implementation in india1
Suggestions on Implementation in India

  • 1 Server, 3 PCs, printer, LAN & UPS in every Club

  • Estimated cost of 90 million USD can be met through USO fund

  • Funds required – Appx 4,000 USD per center

  • Implement in 20,000 villages in first phase (those above 5,000 population

Sanjeev K Sharma

12th Symposium on

Development and Social Transformation

Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector Policies

ICT Policy: A Comparative Study of USA and IndiaDebkumar Chakrabarti

Outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation

  • ICT : The Potential

  • ICT Policy: The Normative Way

  • ICT Policy: Developed Countries (USA, Japan, EU)

  • ICT Policy: Developing Countries (China, S.Korea, India)

  • Concerns & Lessons

  • Recommendations

Ict the potentials
ICT: The Potentials

  • The key enablers of globalization.

  • Transformed the business, markets and organizations, revolutionized learning and knowledge-sharing.

  • Empowered citizens to equitable and prosperous future, democratized societies and resulted in significant economic growth in many countries.

  • Impact of their value-addition had been so rewarding. The technologies themselves became more affordable and accessible.

  • Contribution of ICT —ICT growth and ICT diffusion.

Ict the normative policy
ICT: The Normative Policy

  • The ICT policy of a country should focus equally on the following three major endeavors:

    • Targeting the ICT-producing sector as a “strategic” industry to heighten its formation and growth; and

    • Fostering the diffusion of ICT throughout the economy.

    • Social use of ICT.

  • Targeting only one and thrust on export orientation mainly to garner rapid benefits may create a major economic mismatch.

  • Absorptive power of its own ICT productions to check susceptibility to international recession and regional inequalities.

Ict policy developed countries usa
ICT Policy: Developed Countries USA

  • Freedom and support for the ICT industry.

  • Stimulation of high-tech entrepreneurial culture, creating a homogeneous and flexible labour market while acting as a launch customer for new technologies.

  • The industry is characterized by a high-tech attitude and a close cooperation with universities.

  • Globally the biggest purchaser of ICT goods and services (45% of world’s total spending).

  • Some of the largest firms in the field of ICT originated in the USA (Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, IBM, to name only a few).

  • Sheer size of the home market. Support from the government sector, DoD, NASA, and through "Homeland Security Initiative".

Ict policy developed countries japan
ICT Policy: Developed Countries JAPAN

  • A techno-cultural fit.

  • Broadband access is a major topic on the government's ICT policy agenda, private sector taking the lead.

  • Japan has an excellent telecommunications infrastructure. High potential in educational standards and technological capability.

  • IT accounted for 11.6% of GDP in 2000.

  • Reliance on mainframes has meant that Japanese businesses favored custom software made by domestic software firms.

  • Japan is spending more than $30 billion a year on telecommunication infrastructure improvement.

  • New IT legislation in 2001 ('IT Basic Law') and the 'e-Japan strategy' program.

Ict policy developed countries eu
ICT Policy: Developed Countries EU

  • European ICT policy: mildly regulating and stimulating aimed at a strong social cohesion. It contains the following elements:




  • European ICT policy is aimed at developing an 'Information Society for all'.

  • The EU is strong in Telecommunications, Sustainable development and Social protection

  • Regulation initiatives: adoption of harmonized standards such as GSM, the liberalization of the telecommunications sector and the creation of the Single Market.

  • The central policy initiative is the e-Europe 2005 Action Plan.

  • By the end of 2005, Europe aims to have modern, on-line public services (e-Government, e-Learning, e-Health) and a dynamic e-Business environment, based on a widespread availability of broadband access at competitive prices and a secured information infrastructure.

Concerns developed countries
Concerns: Developed Countries

  • Off-shoring of jobs, manufacturing bases are gaining considerable momentum.

  • Intellectual property right, privacy, digital divide, misuse of ICT (terrorism, money laundering, etc.), affordable universal access.

  • The EU is relatively weak in Innovation and R&D, Information society and Enterprise ecosystem.

Ict policy developing countries china
ICT Policy: Developing Countries China

  • The success of the ICT industry in China is a result of:

    • Deliberate government policies to use Joint Ventures as vehicle for FDIs and Technology Transfer;

    • A very competitive manufacturing industry aimed at export, which can now also serve the gigantic domestic market.

    • The availability of a huge pool of low-cost labour;

  • Hardware production is booming. Chinese companies are rapidly increasing their market share; from 2% in 1999 to 30% by 2002.

  • The Chinese Government announced in 2002 its support for the domestically developed 3G standard TD-SCDMA.

  • The Chinese software industry is small and underdeveloped.

  • China's Government places strong emphasis on promoting domestic production capabilities and using local products in preference to imported foreign technology.

  • Ict policy developing countries india
    ICT Policy: Developing Countries India

    • India: building a huge software industry aimed at export.

    • Focused policy set by India's Government, aiming at liberalization and stimulating the software industry by creating favorable conditions for investments.

    • The Indian software industry grew from a mere USD 150 million in 1991-1992 to a staggering USD 9.5 billion in 2002-03.

    • India's success in software is rooted in a combination of factors:

      • The availability of a large low-cost and highly educated, English speaking labor force;

      • Low entry requirements in terms of investments;

      • Favorable treatment of the sector by the government, for example through tax exemptions and;

      • Strong connectivity with the U.S. computer industry.

  • There remain however challenges, including the perception of an unfavorable regulatory climate, an overloaded judicial system, poor infrastructure and costly access, and limited use of ICT in the domestic market.

  • Concerns developing countries
    Concerns: Developing Countries

    • The linear projection of future growth would create a new set of macro-economic problems. ICT-related exports alone can exceed all current accounts payment by 2010, completely dominating all other parts of the economy. This may put upward pressure on the currency, with inimical consequences on other sectors of the economy, especially manufacturing.

    • The inordinate focus on ICT sector is gradually and constantly amplifying inequalities, particularly in the rural Asia, where majority of population resides. The benefits of ICT have been confined to urban elites, till now.

    • The export oriented thrust on ICT is propelling to focus on cost advantage in these countries, rather than deeper technological capabilities, making the continuation of growth doubtful.

    Lessons to be learned from the developing countries
    Lessons to be learned from the Developing countries

    • The countries referred show a strong preparedness to make choices and shape the future.

    • The Indian Government focused on software development for export and far-reaching measures: the government permitted foreign equity of up to 100% and duty free import on all inputs, created technology parks and offered professional labor services to clients.

    • Korea, like Japan, has shown an early commitment for broadband and has created the financial incentives for them.

    • These choices have paid off: the countries now avail of ICT sectors that are highly dynamic and have the best prospects for the future.

    Lessons to be learned from the developed countries
    Lessons to be learned from the Developed countries

    • liberalize further into market-based operation and competition and limit the role of the Government to regulation, arbitration and negotiation only.

    • induce large-scale social use of ICT, eg. in education, primary health, e-governance, etc.

    • promote private sector research and development, and innovations.

    • promote massive cross-sectoral ICT diffusion, both to gain competitive efficiency on %cost saving as well as to generate absorptive power of ICT within the country.

    • pursue policies both domestically as well as regionally to ensure greater application of ICT within Asian economies. Given that different countries of the region have expertise in different parts of this new technology, greater application of ICT provides an opportunity for greater economic cooperation within Asia.

    12th Symposium on

    Development and Social Transformation

    Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector Policies

    Roads to Convergence – Regulatory ResponseDeepali Sharma

    Presentation outline1
    Presentation Outline

    • What is convergence?

    • Possibilities created by Convergence.

    • Outcomes of convergence .

    • Normative policies to reap the potential of convergence.

    • Regulatory response to convergence .


    What is convergence
    What is Convergence?

    • Convergence refers to the process by which communications networks and services, which were previously considered separate, are being transformed such that:

      • Any one network platform can carry all types of services .

      • One integrated consumer appliance can receive all types of services, and

      • New services are being created. Examples of new products and services being delivered include:

        • Web casting of any audiovisual data,

        • Home-banking and home-shopping over the Internet,

        • Voice over the Internet; etc


    Service Provider

    Customer Premises Equipment

    Telecom Service


    Mobile handset


    Power/Utility Service

    Broadcast Service

    Fixed phone handset


    One Service Provider

    Common Delivery Medium

    Common CPE

    One Stop purchase

    Modes of delivery of Service

    Market Related Developments

    Fiber/twisted pair- telecom operator

    Fiber/Coaxial cable Power/Utility operator

    Bundling of Service

    Flat rate price package

    Integrated operations due to mergers/ condolidation/ linking

    RF Spectrum without satellite

    Power/Utility Service



    Outcomes of convergence
    Outcomes of Convergence

    • Services provided by any- whether telecom operator/Broadcaster/ ISP are encroaching over those provided by others

    • Authority and work span of individual regulators-Telecom /Broadcasting /IT are overlapping, resulting in duplication of resources and efforts

    • Results in

      • confusion among operators,

      • renders government policies ineffective,

      • Hinders development of technology and market


    Issues for reforms in regulations
    Issues for reforms in Regulations

    • Reforms do not simply involve extension of present policies over new services

      • Complete overview of legal and policy framework

      • Commercial success of technology and market determine direction of convergence and area of policy reform

      • Policy reforms decide on the future of technology and markets

    • Ideal solution is to have a single policy and regulator governing the three sectors


    New policy framework
    New Policy Framework

    • Single regulatory policy framework based on law of competition

    • Less of enforced regulation but more of self regulation

    • Ensure optimum utilization of Spectrum

    • Horizontal structure in Broadcasting separated across carriage and content

      • Common regulator across three sectors for carriage

      • Content regulation determined by social and cultural objectives of the country


    Response across the world
    Response across the world

    • Singapore , UK, Malaysia, India have introduced an integrated and independent Regulator.

    • The new regulators are for

      • regulating and promoting ICT industry

      • regulations are based on competition laws

      • they promote self regulation by industries

      • the procedure devised for framing regulations is more transparent having increased public participation.


    Reforms in uk malaysia and singapore
    Reforms in UK, Malaysia and Singapore

    • United Kingdom created OFCOM by merging five regulatory bodies

      • OFTEL

      • Radio Communications Agency

      • Independent Television Commission

      • Radio Authority

      • Broadcasting Standards Commission, which were merged to form an Integrated body OFCOM

  • Singapore formed Infocomm Development Authority by merging

    • Telecommunications Authority of Singapore

    • National Computer Board to form

  • Malaysia formed single regulator –The Communications and Multimedia Commission


    Case of india
    Case of India

    • India is moving towards a converged regulator heading for Unified licensing policy - issues regarding content regulations yet to be resolved

    • The countries that have reformed earlier are reaping the benefits of developments in technology and market for their economic growth better.


    12th Symposium on

    Development and Social Transformation

    Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector Policies

    Increase in Broadband Penetration in India: Policies for Unbundling the Local LoopNeeraj Kumar


    • What is Local loop ?

    • What is Broadband ?

    • What is Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL ) ?

    • Relationship between DSL & Broadband

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Unbundling ?

    Incumbent operator is forced to make its local loop available to other companies (competitors) to provide broadband through DSL in competition to incumbent itself.

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Problem faced
    Problem faced

    Low Broadband Penetration

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Possible solution unbundling
    Possible Solution - Unbundling

    • Brings competition in provisioning of Broadband

    • Breaks monopoly of incumbent Telecom operator

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Why not to unbunde
    Why not to Unbunde ?

    • Forces incumbents to provide competitors with essential business inputs

    • New entrants 'parasite' the incumbent's network - stifles infrastructure based competition and technical innovation

    • More regulation required- detrimental to the market.

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Why to un bundle
    Why to Un-bundle ?

    • Local loop infrastructure can not be duplicated – thus leaving incumbent’s monopoly

    • Incumbent created local loop infrastructure under state monopoly protection and using taxpayer money.

    • Incumbents seen to be less efficient and lethargic

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Status of unbundling international
    Status of Unbundling - International Connections

    • U.K. – Unbundling started in 2000. 31,000 local loop connections have been 'unbundled' short of a target of 50,000. (31 January 2005)

    • ULL DSL as % of total DSL - UK - 0.39%,

    • U.S. – LLU working since 1996. Unbundled loops more than half of CLECs’ lines (December 2001).

    • European Union (EU) – 0.02% European incumbent’s lines were unbundled 27 months after unbundling starting in December 2000

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Unbundling a failure or a success in other countries
    Unbundling – a failure or a success in other countries Connections

    • “There seems to be no correlation between unbundling and DSL penetration and no effect of unbundling on competition resulting in DSL penetration. EU regulator’s competition hypothesis is not true - Cullen International analysis”

    • “ Local loop unbundling (LLU) is not working “(ECTA 2002)” - Phil Elvis, ECTA Managing Director

      Is it an early phase & result may not be conclusive

      Source: European competitive Telecom. Association (ECTA), DSL Scorecard, end of March, 2003

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Unbundling international experience
    Unbundling – International experience Connections

    • Operational coordination problems between the incumbent and new entrants regarding processes such as ordering, provisioning, billing, fault handling and service level agreement, pricing, co-location, space availability, spectrum management on local loops.

    • Arranging power supply for additional equipment, Air-conditioning, fire control, security at premises etc.

    • Lot of litigation

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Indian scenario
    Indian Scenario Connections

    • 95% local loop (45 million) is with incumbents viz. BSNL & MTNL

    • Broadband penetration in India 0.1 million in mid 2005.

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Broadband targets in india
    Broadband Targets In India Connections

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Unbundling issues in india
    Unbundling – Issues in India Connections

    • Private operators support it – to make quick money

    • Incumbents – out of 41 million copper loops 14 million are in rural areas. Out of balance 27 million, around 25-30 per cent can be leveraged for broadband – which is just 7 million

    • Incumbents oppose it – don’t want to give infrastructure to competitors on platter

    • Regulatory body – recommended it

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    Indian government decision on unbundling
    Indian Government decision on Unbundling Connections

    • Not to un-bundle

    • But stiff targets for incumbents

    • If targets not met – threat of unbundling

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    My view on unbundling in india
    My view on Unbundling in India Connections

    • Low number of local loops to begin with compared to developed countries

    • Gains expected appear to be less compared to the problems/ cost expected in unbundling

    • High targets of broadband connections - Unbundling will not solve problem, new technologies required

    Maxwell, School, SU, USA

    12 Connectionsth Symposium on

    Development and Social Transformation

    Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector Policies

    Power Sector Reform Under Socio-political Constraint & Economic Compulsion: Learning From BrazilSusanta Kumar Das

    Evolution of power sector in brazil

    • Start-up of electrical Industry- Through Private initiative in Late Nineteenth Century.

    • No fixed Code, Rule or Regulation- up to 1930. Rate of growth of industry @ 7.7% per Annum.

    • Great Depression of 1929- Change of Industrial policy and impact on Power Sector.

    • In 1934, the Water Code Act – abolition of all old contract, Introduction of Cost Plus Tariff Regime.

    • Drop in Investment compare to Growing consumption Demand- Growth dropped to 4.9% during 1930-40.

    • Post Word War II, Political Consensus for Development of Power Industry –Lead Role of Public Sector company- 8.8% Growth During 1945 to 1970.

    Evolution of power sector in brazil continue

    • Scarce fossil Fuel reserve- Plenty of Hydro-power potential. Thus 82% of generation capacity is Hydro.

    • 1960 Interconnection of Isolated System through long Transmission Line. Thermal power plant for Peak load.

    • Creation of Ministry of Mines and Energy- 1960.Holding company Electrobras- 1962. National Electrification Fund.

    • National Department of Waters and Power – DNAE, 1965.Transformed to National Department of Waters and Electric Energy –DNAEE in 1968. 8.8% Growth- 1945-70.

    • Oil shock of 1970 Made Competitive even with High initial Capital cost. Complementary Role of Thermal plant.

    Evolution of power sector in brazil continue1

    • High political interference-management of Eletrobras and its subsidiaries were politically appointed.

    • No Response by Electricity company to coordinating role of Expansion Plan of Power Industry by Electrobras.

    • 1970- Oil crisis, Recession and high inflation. Control of Tariff to fight inflation. Deterioration of Financial health.

    • Delay in progress of New Power Projects- Severe economic and social consequences.

    • conflict of interest between Eletrobras and the state electricity companies- Construction of 12,000 MW HPP Itaipu and single tariff system for the entire country.

    Reform process
    REFORM PROCESS Connections

    • Subsidies, inefficiency, political interference, corruption lead to financial problem and shortage of capacity.

    • MME constituted Working Group for Institutional Revision of the Electricity Sector (REVISE)- Report in 1988.

      • The conflict regarding exploitation hydropower potential.

      • Poor management of industry by state-owned companies.

      • Excessive interference of politicians in decision Process.

      • Non-accountability to consumers & no regulatory mechanism.

      • Formulation of fossil fuels and electricity policies in isolation.

      • Adoption of policies oriented to reduce the existing large social and economic differences through easy access to electricity.

      • Control of electricity tariffs to fight inflation and Single tariff policy of federal government.

    Reform process conti
    REFORM PROCESS conti… Connections

    • Federal Government initiated Power sector Reform Process in 1993.

    Reform process conti1
    REFORM PROCESS conti… Connections

    • Coopers & Lybrand hired by Electrobras to suggest Policy for Electricity Sector Refom-1996.

    • ANEEL (Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica - Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency) formed.

    • Thus National Council for Energy Policy (CNPE ) established – Power supply to remote area.

    • By 1997 Reformed Brazilian electric system was large and complex.

    • Till 2000 Generation and transmission vastly remained in the hand of Public Sector.

    • In 2001 Power Crisis Lead to Rethinking Reform Policy.

    • In 2002 Law for General Agreement For Electricity-Reform.

    Experience of the reform process

    • Smooth up to 1998.

    • Problem in Rural Connectivity.

    • Social Obligation and Equity.

    • Tariff Structure And Affordability.

    • Lack of interest in Remote Location.

    • Political Interference and Management issue.

    • Sustainability.

    • Fuel and Power market Link.

    Conclusion Connections

    • Power sector liberation as social strategy

    • Electrical industry being meta technology most operated within institutional collective evaluation

    • Sector subjected to public benefit “blackouts”

    • Destined to ill or under serve the aims of equity, sustainability and democratic participation.

    • Failed from the stand point of public benefit

    12 Connectionsth Symposium on

    Development and Social Transformation

    Panel 2: The Changing Face of Telecommunications and Power Sector Policies

    Tuesday, November 15 (10:45- 12:15)