CS 477 Computer Security
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CS 477 Computer Security Prof. W. A. Zuniga-Galindo E-mail: wzuniga@mail.barry Phone : (305) 899-3616 Office: Garner 210 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CS 477 Computer Security Prof. W. A. Zuniga-Galindo E-mail: wzuniga@mail.barry.edu Phone : (305) 899-3616 Office: Garner 210 Home page: http://Euclid.barry.edu/~zuniga. Structure of Course. Textbook William Stallings, Network Security Essentials, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002 Core

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CS 477 Computer Security

Prof. W. A. Zuniga-Galindo

E-mail:wzuniga@mail.barry.edu

Phone: (305) 899-3616

Office: Garner 210

Home page: http://Euclid.barry.edu/~zuniga


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Structure of Course

Textbook

  • William Stallings, Network Security Essentials, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002

    Core

  • Introduction (Basics ideas and Vocabulary)

  • History of Cryptography

  • Symmetric Encryption

  • Introduction to Number Theory

  • Public-Key Encryption

  • PGP


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The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

—The Art of War, Sun Tzu


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Introduction the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Computer Security is a generic name for the collection of tools designed to protect data and to thwart (frustrate) hackers.

  • A collection of interconnected networks is called an ” internet”

  • This course is dedicated to Network Security (or internet Security), which consists of measures to deter, prevent, detect, and correct security violations that involve the transmission of information.

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Examples of Security Violations the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • User A transmits a file to user B. The file contains sensitive information (e.g. payroll records) that is to be protected from disclosure. User C, who is not authorized to read the file, is able to monitor the transmission and captures a copy of the file during its transmission.


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Examples of Security Violations the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • A network management application, D, transmits a message to a computer, E, under its management. The message instructs computer E to update an authorization file to include the identities of a number of new users who are to be given access to that computer. User F intercepts the message, alters its contents to add or delete entries, and then forwards the message to E, which accepts the message as coming from the manager D and updates its authorization file accordingly.


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Examples of Security Violations the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • An employee is fired without warning. The personnel manager sends a message to a server system to invalidate the employee’s account. When the invalidation is accomplished, the server is to post a notice to the employee’s file as confirmation of the action. The employee is able to intercept the message and delay it long enough to make a final access to the server to retrieve sensitive information.The message is then forwarded, the action is taken, and the confirmation posted. The employee’s action may go unnoticed for some considerable time.


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Examples of Security Violations the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • A message is sent from a customer to a stockbroker with instructions for various transactions. Subsequently, the investments lose value and the customer denies sending the message.


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Attacks, Services, and Mechanisms the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

* Security Attack: Any action that compromises the security of information owned by an organization.

* Security Mechanism: A mechanism that is designed to detect, prevent, or recover from a security attack.

* Security Service: A service that enhances the security of data processing systems and information transfers of an organization. A security service makes use of one or more security mechanisms.

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Attacks, Services, and Mechanisms the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • The terms threat and attack are commonly used to mean more or less the same thing.

  • Threat: A potential for violation of security, which exists when there is a circumstance, capability, action, or event that could breach security and cause harm.

  • Attack: An assault on system security that derives from an intelligent threat, that is an intelligent act that is deliberate attempt to evade security services and violate the security policy of the system.

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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Attacks on the security of a computer system or network are best characterized by viewing the function of the computer system as providing information.

  • In general there is a flow of information from a source, such as a file , to a destination, such as a hard disk.


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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Interruption: An asset of the system is destroyed or becomes unavailable or unusable.”This is an attack on availability.”

  • Example: the destruction of a piece of hardware, such as a hard disk, the cutting of a communication line, or the disabling of the file management system.


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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Interception: An unauthorized user (party) gain access to an asset. “This is an attack on confidentiality.” The unauthorized user may be a person, computer or program.

  • Examples:Wiretapping to capture data in a network, and the unauthorized copying of files or programs.


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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Modification: An unauthorized user (party) not only gains access to but tampers with an asset. “This is an attack on integrity.”.

  • Examples: Changing data in a data file, altering a program so that it performs differently, and modifying the content of messages being transmitted on a network.


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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Fabrication: An unauthorized user (party) inserts counterfeit objects into the system. “This an attack on authenticity.”.

  • Examples:Insertion of spurious messages in a network or the addition of records to a file.


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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • A useful categorization of the above mentioned attacks is in terms of passive and active attacks.

    Passive Attacks

    Passive attacks are in the nature of eavesdropping on, or monitoring of, transmissions. The goal of the opponent is to obtain information that is being transmitted. There are two types of passive attacks: (1) release of message contents and (2) traffic analysis.

    Examples(traffic analysis): Creating a customer profile of a user by using information about the sites that he or she visits.


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18 the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.


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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

Active Attacks

These attacks involve some modification of the data stream or the creation of a false stream.

Categories: masquerade, replay, modification of messages, denial service.

A masquerade takes place when one entity pretends to be a different entity.

Replay involves the passive capture of a data unit and its subsequent retransmission to produce an unauthorized effect.


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Security Attacks the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Modification of messages simply means that some portion of a legitimate message is altered, or that messages are delayed or reordered, to produce an unauthorized effect.

  • The denial of service prevents or inhibits the normal use or management of communications facilities.

  • Exercise: To classify the security attacks presented in page 3 of the textbook.


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Security Services the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Confidentiality (privacy): confidentiality is the protection of transmitted data from passive attacks

  • Authentication: the authentication service is concerned with assuring the identity of the sender (who created or sent the data)

  • Integrity :integrity service is the protection of data from unauthorized modifications during the transmission

  • Non-repudiation : this service prevents either sender or receiver from denying transmitted message.

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Security Services the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

  • Access control: in the context of network security, access control is the ability to limit and control the access to host systems and applications via communications links. To achieve this control, each entity trying to gain access must first be identified, so that access rights can be tailored to the individual.

  • Availability: This service is concerned with assuring the permanence of a service or data for authorized users

    - the Denial of Service Attack prevents or inhibits the normal use or management of communication facilities.

    - Virus that deletes files


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  • Exercise the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable. : What class of security mechanism can be used to deter, prevent,and detect the security attacks presented in page 3 of the textbook.


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Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

Virus - code that copies itself into other programs

Worm - a program that replicates itself across the network (usually riding on email messages or attached documents (e.g., macro viruses).

Trojan Horse - instructions in an otherwise good program that cause bad things to happen (sending your data or password to an attacker over the net).

Logic Bomb - malicious code that activates on an event (e.g., date).

Trap Door (or Back Door) - undocumented entry point written into code for debugging that can allow unwanted users.

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Virus Protection the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.

Have a well-known virus protection program, configured to scan disks and downloads automatically for known viruses.

Do not execute programs (or "macro's") from unknown sources (e.g., PS files, HyperCard files, MS Office documents, Java, ...), if you can help it.

Avoid the most common operating systems and email programs, if possible.

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27 the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.


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28 the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable.