GROUND WATER. GROUND WATER. Q. What is ground water? A. The water which is found underneath the Earth’s surface. Most people get their fresh water from a ground water source. AQUIFER. Earth materials which allow the free movement of ground water through it. High Plains Aquifer.
GROUND WATER Q. What is ground water? A. The water which is found underneath the Earth’s surface.
AQUIFER Earth materials which allow the free movement of ground water through it
High Plains Aquifer • The High Plains aquifer, also known as the Ogallala aquifer, is the Nation’s most heavily used groundwater resource. • The majority is used for irrigation, but nearly two million people also depend on the aquifer as a source of drinking water. • The eight states that use water from the High Plains aquifer include Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.
AQUITARD • Confining material • Earth materials which do not allow the free movement of ground water through it
EARTH MATERIALS • Gravel • Sand • Sandstone • Soil • Clay • Solid rock Aquifer Materials Aquitard materials
FACTORS THAT AFFECT GROUND WATER MOVEMENT • Compaction of Earth materials • Grain size of Earth material • The diameter of the pores
POROSITY AND PERMEABILITY POROSITY: The amount of open pore (air) space in a solid material % POROSITY= VOLUME OF AIR SPACE X 100 VOLUME OF MATERIAL PERMEABLE: The ability of a liquid to move through a solid material.
EXAMPLE The volume of a given material is 250ml. The amount of water poured into the beaker is 100ml. What is the % porosity?
EXAMPLE Volume of air space = 100ml Volume of material = 250ml Vol of air X 100 -> 100ml X 100 = 40% Vol of mat. 250ml
Zone of Aeration ZONE OF AERATION Aquifer materials that contains mostly air.
Zone of Saturation ZONE OF SATURATION Aquifer material that is filled with water
Water Table WATER TABLE The border between the zone of saturation and aeration
Recharge Site RECHARGE SITE An area where water is entering the aquifer
Discharge Site DISCHARGE SITE A location where ground water is leaving the aquifer (e.g. river, lake, spring, or well)