Anatomical Position, Directions, Regions , Planes, Cavities, & Quadrants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Anatomical Position, Directions, Regions , Planes, Cavities, & Quadrants

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Anatomical Position, Directions, Regions , Planes, Cavities, & Quadrants
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Anatomical Position, Directions, Regions , Planes, Cavities, & Quadrants

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  1. Anatomical Position, Directions, Regions, Planes, Cavities, & Quadrants

  2. Language of Anatomy • Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding • Exact terminology is used for: • Position • Direction • Regions • Structures

  3. Anatomical Position • Standing erect, with palms and feet facing forward • Is the standard reference point in which all positions, movements, and planes are described

  4. Positions & Directions

  5. Terms of position and direction describe the position of one body part relative to another, usually along one of the three major body planes

  6. Superior Inferior Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body • Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure in the body

  7. Anterior Posterior Refers to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body • Refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body

  8. Medial Lateral Refers to a structure being farther away from the midline than another structure of the body • Refers to a structure being closer to the midline or median plane of the body than another structure of the body

  9. Distal Proximal (Reference to the extremities only) Refers to a structure being closer to the root of the limb than another structure in that limb • (Reference to the extremities only) • Refers to a structure being further away from the root of the limb than another structure in the limb

  10. Superficial Deep Refers to a structure being closer to the core of the body than another structure • Refers to a structure being closer to the surface of the body than another structure

  11. Ventral Dorsal Towards the back • Towards the front or belly

  12. Prone Supine Lying face up Lying on your spine and you can have soup poured into your mouth. • Lying face down • Like a Pro Baseball player sliding into Home.

  13. Unilateral Bilateral Pertaining to both sides of the body • Pertaining to one side of the body

  14. Anterior Body Landmarks • Abdominal • Anterior body trunk inferior to ribs • Acromial • Point of shoulder • Antebrachial • Forearm • Antecubital • Anterior surface of elbow • Axillary • Armpit • Brachial • Arm • Buccal • Cheek • Carpal • Wrist • Cervical • Neck • Coxal • Hip

  15. Anterior Body Landmarks • Crural • Leg • Deltoid • Curve of shoulder • Digital • Fingers, toes • Femoral • Thigh • Fibular • Lateral part of leg • Frontal • Forehead • Inguinal • Groin • Mental • Chin • Nasal • Nose area • Oral • Mouth • Orbital • Eye area • Patellar • Anterior knee

  16. Anterior Body Landmarks • Pelvic • Area overlying the pelvis anteriorly • Pubic • Genital region • Sternal • Breastbone area • Tarsal • Ankle region • Thoracic • Chest • Umbilical • Navel

  17. Anatomical Regions: Anterior

  18. Posterior Body Landmarks • Calcaneal • Heel of the foot • Cephalic • Head • Femoral • Thigh • Gluteal • Buttock • Lumbar • Area of back between ribs and hip (loin) • Occipital • Posterior surface of head/base of skull

  19. Posterior Body Landmarks • Olecranal • Posterior surface of elbow • Popliteal • Posterior knee area • Sacral • Area between hips • Scapular • Shoulder blade region • Sural • Posterior surface of leg (calf) • Vertebral • Area of spinal column

  20. Anatomical Regions: Posterior

  21. Inferior Body Landmark • Plantar • Sole of foot

  22. Anatomical Planes

  23. Fixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structures • Allow one to obtain a three-dimensional perspective by studying the body from different views

  24. Sagittal Plane • The plane dividing the body into right and left portions • Midsagittal or median are names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves

  25. Frontal/Coronal Plane • The plane dividing the body into front and back portions

  26. Transverse/ Horizontal Plane (aka: cross section) • The horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions

  27. Body Cavities

  28. Dorsal Body Cavity • Two subdivisions: • Cranial cavity • Houses brain • Spinal cavity • Houses spinal cord

  29. Ventral Body Cavity • Larger than dorsal cavity • Thoracic cavity • Contains lungs & heart • Separated from rest of ventral cavity by diaphragm • Further separated into right and left by mediastinum • Abdominopelvic cavity • Abdominal cavity • Contains stomach, liver, intestines • Pelvic cavity • Contains reproductive organs, bladder, rectum

  30. Quadrants

  31. Abdominopelvic Quadrants

  32. Regions

  33. Regions • Umbilical region • Centermost region, deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel) • Epigastric region • Superior to the umbilical region • Hypogastric region • Inferior to the umbilical region • Right & Left Iliac/Inguinal regions • Lateral to the hypogastric region • Right & Left Lumbar regions • Lateral to the umbilical region • Right & Left Hypochondriac regions • Lateral to the epigastric region (contain lower ribs)