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Anatomical Position, Directions, Regions , Planes, Cavities, & Quadrants. Language of Anatomy. Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding Exact terminology is used for: Position Direction Regions Structures. Anatomical Position.

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language of anatomy
Language of Anatomy
  • Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding
  • Exact terminology is used for:
    • Position
    • Direction
    • Regions
    • Structures
anatomical position
Anatomical Position
  • Standing erect, with palms and feet facing forward
  • Is the standard reference point in which all positions, movements, and planes are described
slide5

Terms of position and direction describe the position of one body part relative to another, usually along one of the three major body planes

slide6
Superior

Inferior

Refers to a structure being closer to the feet or lower than another structure in the body

  • Refers to a structure being closer to the head or higher than another structure in the body
slide7
Anterior

Posterior

Refers to a structure being more in back than another structure in the body

  • Refers to a structure being more in front than another structure in the body
slide8
Medial

Lateral

Refers to a structure being farther away from the midline than another structure of the body

  • Refers to a structure being closer to the midline or median plane of the body than another structure of the body
slide9
Distal

Proximal

(Reference to the extremities only)

Refers to a structure being closer to the root of the limb than another structure in that limb

  • (Reference to the extremities only)
  • Refers to a structure being further away from the root of the limb than another structure in the limb
slide10
Superficial

Deep

Refers to a structure being closer to the core of the body than another structure

  • Refers to a structure being closer to the surface of the body than another structure
slide11
Ventral

Dorsal

Towards the back

  • Towards the front or belly
slide12
Prone

Supine

Lying face up

Lying on your spine and you can have soup poured into your mouth.

  • Lying face down
    • Like a Pro Baseball player sliding into Home.
slide13
Unilateral

Bilateral

Pertaining to both sides of the body

  • Pertaining to one side of the body
anterior body landmarks
Anterior Body Landmarks
  • Abdominal
    • Anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
  • Acromial
    • Point of shoulder
  • Antebrachial
    • Forearm
  • Antecubital
    • Anterior surface of elbow
  • Axillary
    • Armpit
  • Brachial
    • Arm
  • Buccal
    • Cheek
  • Carpal
    • Wrist
  • Cervical
    • Neck
  • Coxal
    • Hip
anterior body landmarks1
Anterior Body Landmarks
  • Crural
    • Leg
  • Deltoid
    • Curve of shoulder
  • Digital
    • Fingers, toes
  • Femoral
    • Thigh
  • Fibular
    • Lateral part of leg
  • Frontal
    • Forehead
  • Inguinal
    • Groin
  • Mental
    • Chin
  • Nasal
    • Nose area
  • Oral
    • Mouth
  • Orbital
    • Eye area
  • Patellar
    • Anterior knee
anterior body landmarks2
Anterior Body Landmarks
  • Pelvic
    • Area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
  • Pubic
    • Genital region
  • Sternal
    • Breastbone area
  • Tarsal
    • Ankle region
  • Thoracic
    • Chest
  • Umbilical
    • Navel
posterior body landmarks
Posterior Body Landmarks
  • Calcaneal
    • Heel of the foot
  • Cephalic
    • Head
  • Femoral
    • Thigh
  • Gluteal
    • Buttock
  • Lumbar
    • Area of back between ribs and hip (loin)
  • Occipital
    • Posterior surface of head/base of skull
posterior body landmarks1
Posterior Body Landmarks
  • Olecranal
    • Posterior surface of elbow
  • Popliteal
    • Posterior knee area
  • Sacral
    • Area between hips
  • Scapular
    • Shoulder blade region
  • Sural
    • Posterior surface of leg (calf)
  • Vertebral
    • Area of spinal column
inferior body landmark
Inferior Body Landmark
  • Plantar
    • Sole of foot
slide23

Fixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structures

  • Allow one to obtain a three-dimensional perspective by studying the body from different views
slide24
Sagittal Plane
  • The plane dividing the body into right and left portions
  • Midsagittal or median are names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves
slide25
Frontal/Coronal Plane
  • The plane dividing the body into front and back portions
slide26
Transverse/ Horizontal Plane (aka: cross section)
  • The horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
dorsal body cavity
Dorsal Body Cavity
  • Two subdivisions:
    • Cranial cavity
      • Houses brain
    • Spinal cavity
      • Houses spinal cord
ventral body cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
  • Larger than dorsal cavity
  • Thoracic cavity
    • Contains lungs & heart
    • Separated from rest of ventral cavity by diaphragm
    • Further separated into right and left by mediastinum
  • Abdominopelvic cavity
    • Abdominal cavity
      • Contains stomach, liver, intestines
    • Pelvic cavity
      • Contains reproductive organs, bladder, rectum
regions1
Regions
  • Umbilical region
    • Centermost region, deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
  • Epigastric region
    • Superior to the umbilical region
  • Hypogastric region
    • Inferior to the umbilical region
  • Right & Left Iliac/Inguinal regions
    • Lateral to the hypogastric region
  • Right & Left Lumbar regions
    • Lateral to the umbilical region
  • Right & Left Hypochondriac regions
    • Lateral to the epigastric region (contain lower ribs)