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Technologies for Space Exploration
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  1. Technologies for Space Exploration A. Cadiou CNES R&T Service

  2. Instrumentation : CNES R&T priorities for participation to ESA and international programs • Miniaturisation of in-situ instruments • Optic instrument : atmospheric sounding with a LASER, microscope with an accordable acousto-optic filter • Mass spectrometer : micromachining, SIMS miniaturised • Ground penetrating radar : increase in frequency, antennas 20 to 300MHz • Micro sismometer • Exobiology : analysis of return samples • Development of an electron cathodoluminescent lamp • Identification of biomarkers • In-situ chiral analysis of amino acid • X band electronic paramagnetic resonance imagery

  3. Vehicle critical technologies • Propulsion • Power generation • Autonomy • Robotics • Aerothermodynamics • Trajectography

  4. Propulsion Mission complexity Nuclear thermic and electric Programme Manned flight Apollo d ’exploration Mars Return Solar sample electric Mars Nuclear electric Express Bepi Columbo Orbiter / Chemical lander Solar Voyager Cassini electric Flight over Smart 1 Chemical Galiléo 10 1 0.1 100 Sun distance (UA)

  5. Propulsion • ESA/CNES R&T with Snecma on High Power Hall effect thrusters with the objective to increase the thrust and the specific impulse • Study of a design close to the PPS1350-G used on Smart1 (scale factor), • Study of double stage design allowing the separation of the ionisation and acceleration zone inside the thruster, • Technologies improvement : ceramic, magnetic materials, … • Research activities on these thrusters (CNRS, CNES, SNECMA) with Russia cooperation (INTAS project)

  6. Power generation • Solar cells and batteries (up to Jupiter) • Performance improvements are still possible on the multi-jonctions cells • Substrate improvement to reduce the mass • CNES R&T activities on the Li-ion batteries (SAFT) and on the triple jonctions AsGa cells mainly for the large telecommunication geostationary platforms • RTG (Radio-isotopic Thermal Generators) (1W-500W)cooperation with Russia and Alcatel ETCA (Be) through an INTAS project • Nuclear electric fission reactor

  7. Autonomy • CNES Generic activities on the system with the objectives of : • Complete autonomy in routine mode (no TC) • Large reduction in the number of TM for the control of the vehicle • Increas of the reactivity in case of on board events in suppressing the ground/board loop • A ground demonstrator is in preparation in cooperation with ONERA

  8. Robotics • CNES R&T activities on : • Improvement of the localisation of a rover through the filtering of the wheel measurements • Study, realisation and test of an attitude control system with commercial components • Cooperation with Russia and EADS ST (Ge) on a Mars Rover using inflatable or unfolding wheels

  9. Aerothermodynamics • CNES R&T activities on the modelisation of the interactions between a rarefied gas and a structure • Surface catalysis determination for Earth and Mars atmospheric re-entry vehicles – INTAS project with the VKI and Russian Institutes

  10. Trajectography • Development with IMCCE (Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul d’Ephémérides) of planetary ephemerides : improvement of the dynamic evolution model of the different elements of the solar system – cooperation with ESA (GAIAA project) and ESOC (supply of data)