Newton’s Laws

# Newton’s Laws

## Newton’s Laws

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
##### Presentation Transcript

1. Newton’s Laws --Don’t cross the Newton. You’ll get figged.

2. Newton’s laws • An object in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an outside, net force • An object accelerates proportional to the net force exerted upon it, inversely proportional to its mass. • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

3. Newton’s First Law • …also known as “inertia” • An object in motion tends to stay in motion, an object at rest tends to stay at rest…

4. Newton’s First Law • …also known as “inertia” • An object in motion tends to stay in motion, an object at rest tends to stay at rest… …unless acted upon by an outside force!

5. Does anything remain in motion? • So what causes objects to come to rest?

6. Does anything remain in motion? • So what causes objects to come to rest? Friction Happens

7. Friction opposes motion V F The surfaces in contact cause friction

8. Decrease friction • Wheels • Skates/skis • Sleds • Lubricants • Magnetic levitation Increase friction • Brakes • Rubber tires • Tread on tires/shoes • Spikes

9. Even without a surface… V Air resistance …air resistance will slow moving objects

10. Decrease air resistance • Streamlining • Slowing down (Professional cyclists shave their legs!) Increase air resistance • Parachutes • Sails • Airfoils

11. Frames of reference • Suppose a kayaker can paddle at 1.8 m/s, and she is on a river flowing at 1.5 m/s. • If she is paddling downstream, how fast is she moving with respect to: • The water? • The riverbank? • If she is paddling upstream, how fast is she moving with respect to: • The water? • The riverbank?

12. Definition --A push or a pull. --must be exerted on an object

13. Forces • A force is a push or a pull. • It has a DIRECTION! 5N East 7N West 15N North

14. Forces • A force can cause acceleration. • …this object accelerates to the east 5N East

15. Forces • A force can cause acceleration. • …or not. The object’s weight pushes it against the surface

16. Forces • The acceleration of an object is a result of the forces acting upon it. A object’s weight pulls it down The cart starts to move west as the horse begins to pull

17. Forces • The units on a force are Newtons • (Remember? Newton’s Laws of motion?)

18. Forces • A one Newton force will accelerate a 1 kg object at one m/s2 1N=1kgm/s2 1 kg A 1 N force will accelerate a 1kg object at 1 m/s2

19. Forces • A one Newton force will accelerate a 1 kg object at one m/s2 1N=1kgm/s2 .5 kg A 1 N force will accelerate a .5kg object at 2 m/s2

20. Forces • A one Newton force will accelerate a 1 kg object at one m/s2 1N=1kgm/s2 2 kg A 1 N force will accelerate a 2kg object at .5 m/s2

21. Newton’s Second Law • The acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force acting on it, and inversely proportional to the object’s mass. a=F/m or F=ma

22. Centripetal force An object moving in a curved path is acted upon by a centripetal force

23. Weight Weight is the force exerted upon an object by the acceleration of gravity.

24. Weight is a force! • What is the weight of a 5.8 kg object? 2) What is the weight of a 865 g object? 3) What is the mass of a 580 N object?

25. The acceleration of gravity = 9.8 m/s2 • What is the weight of a 5.8 kg object? 57N 2) What is the weight of a 865 g object? 8.5 N 3) What is the mass of a 580 N object? 59 kg

26. What is the acceleration? 1) A 850 kg car gets a force of 2700 N (from the friction between the tires and the road) 2) A tugboat provides a force of 70,000 N of tension on its tow cables to pull a ship with a mass of 15,000,000 kg away from the dock. 3) The Saturn-V rocket has a mass of 2.8x106 kg, while its engines provide 3.3x107 N of thrust

27. What is the acceleration? 1) A 850 kg car gets a force of 2700 N (from the friction between the tires and the road) 3.2 m/s2 2) A tugboat provides a force of 70,000 N of tension on its tow cables to pull a ship with a mass of 15,000,000 kg away from the dock. .0047 m/s2 3) The Saturn-V rocket has a mass of 2.8x106 kg, while its engines provide 3.3x107 N of thrust 12 m/s2

28. What is the force? 1) A 72 kg sprinter leaves the blocks at 15 m/s2 2) A fighter jet with a mass of 4500 kg accelerates at 35 m/s2 while taking off. 3) A quarterback throws a 1.2 kg football at 21 m/s, accelerating it from rest in .32 s

29. What is the force? 1) A 72 kg sprinter leaves the blocks at 15 m/s2 1100 N 2) A fighter jet with a mass of 4500 kg accelerates at 35 m/s2 while taking off. 160,000 N 3) A quarterback throws a 1.2 kg football at 21 m/s, accelerating it from rest in .32 s 79 N

30. What is the braking distance? • The road can offer a car exactly 1/3 of its weight in friction with the tires at full braking. Suppose the car has a mass of 1100 kg (weight = 10800 N) • How much friction does the road provide? b) What is the acceleration of the car at full braking? c) If the car is moving at 25 m/s, how far does it travel before coming to rest?

31. What is the braking distance? • The road can offer a car exactly 1/3 of its weight in friction with the tires at full braking. Suppose the car has a mass of 1100 kg (weight = 10800 N) • How much friction does the road provide? -3600 N b) What is the acceleration of the car at full braking? -3.26 m/s2 c) If the car is moving at 25 m/s, how far does it travel before coming to rest? 97 m

32. What is the braking distance? • The road can offer a car exactly 1/3 of its weight in friction with the tires at full braking. Suppose the car has a mass of 2200 kg (weight = 21600 N) • How much friction does the road provide? b) What is the acceleration of the car at full braking? c) If the car is moving at 25 m/s, how far does it travel before coming to rest?

33. What is the braking distance? • The road can offer a car exactly 1/3 of its weight in friction with the tires at full braking. Suppose the car has a mass of 2200 kg (weight = 21600 N) • How much friction does the road provide? -7200 N b) What is the acceleration of the car at full braking? -3.26 m/s2 c) If the car is moving at 25 m/s, how far does it travel before coming to rest? 97 m

34. What is the braking distance? • The road can offer a car exactly 1/3 of its weight in friction with the tires at full braking. Suppose the car has a mass of 2200 kg (weight = 21600 N) • How much friction does the road provide? b) What is the acceleration of the car at full braking? c) If the car is moving at 50 m/s, how far does it travel before coming to rest?

35. What is the braking distance? • The road can offer a car exactly 1/3 of its weight in friction with the tires at full braking. Suppose the car has a mass of 2200 kg (weight = 21600 N) • How much friction does the road provide? -7200 N b) What is the acceleration of the car at full braking? -3.26 m/s2 c) If the car is moving at 50 m/s, how far does it travel before coming to rest? 380 m

36. Vector addition • If two vectors lie in the same direction, add their magnitudes. The sum lies in the same direction. 5N (north) + 10N (north) = 15N (north) 75m/s (east) + 40m/s (east) = 115m/s (east)

37. Vector addition • If two vectors lie in opposite directions, subtract their magnitudes. The sum lies in the same direction as the longer vector. 5N (south) + 12N (north) = 7N (north) 75m/s (east) + 40m/s (west) = 35m/s (east)

38. What is the net force? • A 20 N object is lifted with 36 N. . • A 45N object is lifted by a 850 N man. . • A two guys push a desk with 350 N each. . • I pull a desk with 400 N against 180 N friction. .

39. What is the net force? • A 20 N object is lifted with 36 N. +16 N • A 45N object is lifted by a 850 N man. -895N • A two guys push a desk with 350 N each. +700N • I pull a desk with 400 N against 180 N friction. +220N

40. Draw two vectors at right angles: • On your graph paper, draw a 5.0 cm vector east and a 7.0 cm vector north.

41. Draw two vectors at right angles: • On your graph paper, draw a 5.0 cm vector east and a 7.0 cm vector north. • These vectors might represent x and y components of velocity • vy • vx

42. Draw two vectors at right angles: • So, what direction is the object going? • vy • vx

43. Draw two vectors at right angles: • So, what direction is the object going? • Up and to the right —right? • vy • vx

44. Draw two vectors at right angles: • Draw the vectors TIP to TAIL • (re-draw the north vector so its tail starts at the tip of the east vector) • vy • vx

45. Draw two vectors at right angles: • The RESULTANT vector is the sum of the two vectors. • vR • vy • vx

46. Draw two vectors at right angles: • The RESULTANT vector is the sum of the two vectors. • Measure and record the length of the resultant vector (in cm.) and the angle it makes with vx • vR • vy • vx

47. Draw two vectors at right angles: • The RESULTANT vector is the sum of the two vectors. • Measure and record the length of the resultant vector (in cm.) and the angle it makes with vx • vR=8.6 cm at 54o • vy • vx

48. To add two vectors at right angles

49. Draw them tip to tail

50. The sum is the hypotenuse