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KNR 273: Conceptual Foundations / TR Definitions

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  1. KNR 273:Conceptual Foundations / TR Definitions

  2. What is a conceptual foundation?Sylvester, Voelkl, & Ellis, 2001 • “System of ideas that explains something at its most basic level.” (p. 3) • “Ultimate source of explanation and justification upon which theory and practice are based.” (p. 3) • May change/evolve over time • Basic beliefs should be clearly evident at any time

  3. What is a conceptual foundation?Sylvester, Voelkl, & Ellis, 2001 • Consists of principle and values a profession “stand for and stands on.” (p. 4) • Rationale for existence as legitimate social institution • Why does the profession exist? • Why is it needed? • What purpose does it serve? • “This is who we are and why we are here.” • Explains profession’s existence • Guides theory and practice

  4. Conceptual Foundations for TR • Leisure • Recreation • Play • Freedom To • Freedom From • Why are these concepts important to the provision of TR services?

  5. Making a Case for Leisure • Sylvester, Voelkl, & Ellis, 2001 • The most socially legitimate justification for TR is derived from an orientation to leisure for purpose of health, well-being, and quality of life • TR is not a medical specialty, it is a unique human service that complements, but does not duplicate medical services

  6. Making a Case (Cont.) • If leisure were removed from TR, what would distinguish it from activity-based therapies, such as OT, PT, Music Therapy, and Art Therapy? • Conceived solely as treatment, TR is indistinguishable from other activity therapies. • We fail to see an adequate social justification for TR without a clear and direct association with leisure

  7. Making a Case (Cont.) • Leisure affords opportunity for activity, which has been credited as an effective means for meeting the adaptive needs of human beings. • Perhaps leisure activity can best be viewed as a stimulus to health vs. a cure for disease • TR lacks justification if this is the only reason for its existence

  8. Making a Case (Cont.) • Leisure contributes to a greater sense of well-being • The opportunity of leisure is necessary for meeting the creative–expressive needs of clients • Leisure is a flexible medium for helping persons with illnesses and disabilities to reintegrate into community life

  9. Making a Case (Cont.) • The social institution of leisure is an avenue for addressing structural deficiencies that affect the health and well-being of individuals • Leisure is a significant contributor to quality of life, which is being recognized as the overarching goal of rehabilitation

  10. Making a Case (Cont.) • All people, including persons receiving healthcare, have the right to leisure for the purposes of health, well-being, and quality of life • “Any theory of caring for persons who are ill or injured that does not include a prominent role for leisure and TR service is socially limited and morally impoverished.” (p. 33)

  11. Benefits of LeisureStumbo & Peterson, 2009 • Physical Health • Decrease health problems • Decrease morbidity • Decrease obesity • Prevent health problems • Increase general health and fitness • Decrease secondary disabilities • And more

  12. Benefits of LeisureStumbo & Peterson, 2009 • Emotional and Psychological Health • Prevent, manage, and cope with stress • Immediate distraction • Temporary relief & escape • Return to normalcy • Increase positive moods • Decrease anxiety and depression • Increase quality of life & well being • Adjust to negative life events • And others

  13. Benefits of LeisureStumbo & Peterson, 2009 • Social Health • Develop and practice social interaction skills • Develop and use social support networks • Create positive relationships with others • Improve family relationships • Increase involvement in community • And others

  14. Benefits of LeisureStumbo & Peterson, 2009 • See page 12 • And others

  15. Barriers to LeisureStumbo & Peterson, 2004 • See page 11

  16. Leisure LifestyleStumbo & Peterson, 2009 • People express their lifestyle through the choices they make • Leisure is a component of a person’s overall lifestyle • Leisure can improve a person’s overall lifestyle • Will discuss more later

  17. Leisure LifestyleStumbo & Peterson, 2009 • People express their lifestyle through the choices they make • Leisure is a component of a person’s overall lifestyle • Leisure can improve a person’s overall lifestyle • Will discuss more later

  18. What is Therapeutic Recreation? • Your understanding • NTRS 1982 • Purpose is to facilitate the development, maintenance, and expression of an appropriate leisure lifestyle for individuals with physical, mental, social or emotional limitations.

  19. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • NTRS, 1994 • Practiced in clinical, residential, and community settings, the profession of therapeutic recreation uses treatment, education, and recreation services to help people with illnesses, disabilities, and other conditions to develop and use their leisure in ways that enhance their health, independence, and well-being.

  20. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • NTRS 2000 • Therapeutic recreation uses treatment, education, and recreation services to help people with illnesses, disabilities, and other conditions to develop and use their leisure in ways that enhance their health, functional abilities, independence, and quality of life.

  21. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • ATRA 1986 • Therapeutic recreation is the provision of treatment services and the provision of recreation services to persons with illness or disabling conditions. • The primary purpose of treatment services, which is often referred to as recreation therapy, is to restore, remediate or rehabilitate in order to improve functioning and independence as well as reduce or eliminate the effects of illness or disability. • The primary purpose of recreation services is to provide recreation resources and opportunities in order to improve health and well-being.

  22. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • ATRA 1986 (cont.) • Therapeutic Recreation is provided by professionals who are trained and certified, registered and/or licensed to provide Therapeutic Recreation.

  23. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • "Recreational Therapy” means a treatment service designed to restore, remediate and rehabilitate a person’s level of functioning and independence in life activities, to promote health and wellness as well as reduce or eliminate the activity limitations and restrictions to participation in life situations caused by an illness or disabling condition. • Revised by ATRA Board of Directors | July 2009

  24. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • The primary purpose of recreation therapy practice is to improve health and quality of life by reducing impairments of body function and structure, reducing activity limitations, participation restrictions, and environmental barriers of the clients served. The ultimate goal of recreation therapy is to facilitate full and optimal involvement in community life. • Accepted by the Boards of Directors of ATRA, NTRS, and NCTRC, 2004

  25. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • TR is a profession which recognizes leisure, recreation, and play as integral components of quality of life. Service is provided to individuals who have physical, mental, social, or emotional limitations which impact their ability to engage in meaningful leisure experiences. TR is directed toward functional interventions, leisure education, and participation opportunities. These processes support the goal of assisting the individual to maximize independence in leisure, optimal health, and the highest possible quality of life. • Canadian Therapeutic Recreation Association, 2008

  26. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • Therapeutic recreation is the purposeful utilization or enhancement of leisure as a way to maximize a person’s overall health, well-being, or quality of life. • Robertson & Long, 2008

  27. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • Therapeutic recreation is the purposeful and careful facilitation of quality leisure experiences and the development of personal and environmental strengths, which lead to greater well-being for people who, due to illness, disability, or other life circumstances, need individualized assistance in achieving their goals and dreams. • Anderson & Heyne, 2012

  28. Definitions of TR (Cont.) • Klitzing 2004 • TR uses recreation or other related interventions, techniques, or services to increase the quality of life, as it relates to leisure, of people with disabilities, illnesses, or other limitations • TR practice uses the “TR Process” • TR practice is based on a TR model

  29. Student Definition • TR is the use of recreation or leisure activities to help people with disabilities, illnesses, or conditions learn, grow, and adapt in the environment they are given while enhancing their quality of life, health, and functional abilities. • Burger, 2007