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Note to the Instructor:. The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and key terms of Chapter 7 in Psychology in Action (8e). Before presentations, you can delete these instructor information slides by simply pressing “delete” on your keyboard.

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slide1

Note to the Instructor:

  • The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and key terms of Chapter 7 in Psychology in Action (8e).Before presentations, you can delete these instructor information slides by simply pressing “delete” on your keyboard.
  • If you prefer a different background color or design, click on the upper right corner under “design.”
  • To further personalize and enrich your PowerPoint slides, check the Psychology in Action Instructor Resource site for additional video clips, figures, tables, key terms, etc.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide2

Note to the Instructor (Continued):

  • Each topic listed on the Lecture Outline slide (#4) has been “linked” for your convenience. When in the “presentation mode,” simply click on the topic and you will link directly to the slide(s) of interest. Note that the last slide of each topic includes a “home” icon that will return you to the original Lecture Outline slide. This feature enables you to present chapter topics in any order. Ease of navigation and flexibility in presentation are key elements of a PowerPoint in Action.

Enjoy!

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

psychology in action 8e by karen huffman

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 7: Memory

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

lecture overview
Lecture Overview
  • The Nature of Memory
  • Forgetting
  • Biological Bases of Memory
  • Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory
The Nature of Memory
  • Memory (an internal record or

representation of some prior

event or experience)

  • Memory is also aconstructive process, in which we actively organize and shape information as it is processed, stored, and retrieved.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory four memory models
The Nature of Memory—Four Memory Models

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory four memory models continued
The Nature of Memory—Four Memory Models (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of four memory models
1. Information Processing Approach: memory is a process analogous to a computer, which encodes, stores, and retrieves information.The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of four memory models cont
2. Parallel Distributed Processing Model: memory is distributed across a network of interconnected units that work simultaneously (in a parallel fashion) to process information.The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Cont.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of four memory models continued
The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Continued)

3.Levels of Processing Approach: memory depends on the degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered.

4.Traditional Three-Stage Memory Model: memory requires three different storage boxes to hold and process information for various lengths of time.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

diagram of three stage memory model
Diagram of Three-Stage Memory Model

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory description of three stage memory model
The Nature of Memory—Description of Three Stage Memory Model
  • Sensory Memory: briefly preserves a relatively exact replica of sensory information.
    • Sensory memory has a large capacity but information only lasts a few seconds.
    • Selected information is sent on to short-term memory.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

sperling s experiment with sensory memory
When flashed an arrangement of 12 letters for 1/20 of a second, most people can only recall 4 or 5. But Sperling proved all 12 letters were available in sensory memory if they can be attended to quickly.Sperling’s Experiment with Sensory Memory

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory three stage memory model cont
The Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Cont.)
  • Short-Term Memory (STM): temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM).
  • STM can hold 5-9 items for about 30 seconds before they are forgotten.
  • STM capacity can be increased with chunking and duration improves withmaintenance rehearsal.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

slide15
STM is also called working memory because it is much more than just a passive, temporary holding area.
  • Three parts of working memory:
  • visuospatial sketchpad
  • central executive
  • phonological loop

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

the nature of memory three stage memory model continued
Long-term memory (LTM): relatively permanent memory storage with a virtually limitless capacity.The Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

types of long term memories
Types of Long-Term Memories

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

improving long term memory ltm
Improving Long-Term Memory (LTM)
  • LTM can be improved with:
    • Organization
    • Elaborative rehearsal
    • Retrieval cues
      • Recognition
      • Recall

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

an example of using hierarchies as an organizational tool
An Example of Using Hierarchies as an Organizational Tool

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

an example of recognition vs recall
Research shows that people are much better at recognizing the photos of previous high school classmates than they are at recalling their names. An Example of Recognition Vs. Recall

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

a test for recall can you write down the names of santa s nine reindeer
A Test for Recall: Can You Write Down the Names of Santa’s Nine Reindeer?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

now try recognizing the names need help answers appear in appendix b
A) Rudolph

B) Dancer

C) Cupid

D) Lancer

E) Comet

F) Vixen

G) Blitzen

H) Crasher

I) Donner

J) Prancer

K) Sunder

L) Thunder

M) Dasher

N) Donder

Now Try Recognizing the Names (Need Help? Answers Appear in Appendix B)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

forgetting
Forgetting
  • Ebbinghaus found:
    • forgetting occurs most rapidly immediately after learning.
    • relearning takes less time than initial learning.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

why do we forget five key theories
Decay

Interference

Motivated Forgetting

Encoding Failure

Retrieval Failure

Why Do We Forget? Five Key Theories

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

five theories of forgetting continued
Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued)

1. Decay Theory:

memory degrades with time

2. Interference Theory: one memory competes (or interferes) with another

  • Retroactiveinterference (new information interferes with old)
  • Proactive interference (old information interferes with new)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

two forms of interference
Two Forms of Interference

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

five theories of forgetting continued27
Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued)

3.Motivated Forgetting: we are motivated to forget unpleasant, painful, threatening, or embarrassing memories.

4. Encoding Failure: information in STM is not encoded in LTM.

5. Retrieval Failure: memories stored in LTM are momentarily inaccessible (tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

a test for encoding which of these is an exact duplicate of a real penny
A Test for Encoding: Which of These is an Exact Duplicate of a Real Penny?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

overcoming problems with forgetting
Serial Position Effect: material at the beginning and end of the list is remembered better than material in the middle.Overcoming Problems with Forgetting

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

overcoming problems with forgetting continued
Overcoming Problems with Forgetting(Continued)
  • Source Amnesia: forgetting the true source of a memory
  • Sleeper Effect: information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because source is forgotten
  • Spacing of Practice: distributed practice is found to be superior to massed practice

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biological bases of memory
Biological Bases of Memory
  • Biological changes in neurons facilitate memory through long-term potentiation (LTP),which happens in at least two ways:
  • repeated stimulation of a synapse strengthens the synapse, and
  • neuron’s ability to release its neurotransmitters is increased or decreased.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biological bases of memory continued
Hormones

also affect memory (e.g., flashbulb memories--vivid and lasting images are associated with surprising or strongly emotional events).

Biological Bases of Memory (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

where are memories located
Memory tends to be localized and distributed throughout the brain--not just in the cortex.Where Are Memories Located?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biology and memory loss injury and disease
Amnesia: (memory loss from brain injury or trauma)

Retrograde amnesia (old memories lost)

Anterograde amnesia (new memories lost)

Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

biology and memory loss injury and disease continued
Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease (Continued)
  • Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) (progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

memory and the criminal justice system
Memory and the Criminal Justice System
  • Two memory problems with profound legal implications:
  • Eyewitness Testimony--

very persuasive but can be flawed.

  • Repressed Memories—

considerabledebate as to whether recovered memories are accurate or repressed.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

using psychology to improve our memory
Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory
  • Why do we distort our memories?
    • We need to maintain logic and consistency.
    • We also shape and construct our memories because it is more efficient to do so.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

using psychology to improve our memory continued
Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory (Continued)
  • Eight Tips for Memory Improvement:

1.Pay attention and reduce interference.

2. Use rehearsal techniques.

3. Improve your organization.

4. Counteract the serial position effect.

5. Manage your time.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

using psychology to improve our memory continued39
Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory (Continued)

6. Use the encoding specificity principle.

7. Employ self-monitoring and overlearning.

8. Use mnemonic devices (e.g., method of loci, peg-word, substitute word, word associations).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

psychology in action 8e by karen huffman40

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of

Chapter 7: Memory

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)