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Legislative Data and Transparency Conference . 2013. Conference Schedule. Legislative Overview. Kirsten Gullickson Office of the Clerk. Legislative Process Overview. Kirsten Gullickson , Sr. Systems Analyst Office of the Clerk. Rep. Ludlow placing bill into hopper 12/30/1936

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slide1

Legislative Data

and

Transparency

Conference

2013

legislative overview
Legislative Overview

Kirsten Gullickson

Office of the Clerk

legislative process overview

Legislative Process Overview

Kirsten Gullickson, Sr. Systems Analyst

Office of the Clerk

Rep. Ludlow placing bill into hopper 12/30/1936

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009008605/

the challenge
The Challenge
  • Legislative documents and related data must be
    • prepared
    • managed,
    • distributed, and
    • archived.
  • This includes paper and electronic means for handling the official documents.
how a bill become a law
How a bill become a law.

After the vote has been taken, the result is noted in the Journal of Action by Louis Sirkey, House Journal Clerk. If the bill receives a passing vote, it is sent to the other chamber for action. If the bill failed to pass it must be reintroduced unless it is voted to refer it back to the committee for reconsideration

the challenge cont d
The Challenge (cont’d)

Government data should be

  • Public
  • Accessible
  • Described
  • Reusable
  • Complete
  • Timely
  • Managed Post-Release

White House M-13-13,

Open Data Policy,

Managing Information as an Asset

where are the documents data
Where are the documents? Data?
  • GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
    • www.gpo.gov
  • LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
    • Thomas.loc.gov
    • Beta.congress.gov
  • THE HOUSE
    • Clerk.house.gov
    • Docs.house.gov
    • www.house.gov
    • Committee websites
  • THE SENATE
    • www.senate.gov
    • Committee websites
introduction and referral to committee
Introduction and Referral to Committee

The Hopper

http://history.house.gov/Collection/Listing/2004/2004-019-000/

Doc. 110-49, page 8

How Our Laws Are Made

consideration by committee
Consideration by Committee

Doc. 110-49, page 11

How Our Laws Are Made

reported to house and placed on calendar
Reported to House and Placed on Calendar

Doc. 110-49, page 15

How Our Laws Are Made

consideration on house floor
Consideration on House Floor

Doc. 110-49, page 20

How Our Laws Are Made

senate consideration
Senate Consideration

Doc. 110-49, page 36

How Our Laws Are Made

enrollment and presidential actions
Enrollment and Presidential Actions

Doc. 110-49, page 36

How Our Laws Are Made

slip laws and u s code
Slip laws and U.S. Code

Doc. 110-49, page 53

How Our Laws Are Made

questions and answers

Until Jurgensen, Jr., a tally clerk designed this electric voting machine it took at least three months, using the old rubber stamp system, to compile the voting records of the 435 members of the House. Recording the yeas and nays, absent and present, paired for and paired against votes of each individual member, the machine which is similar to an adding machine, does the same job in less than two weeks. Greater accuracy is assured in counting votes with Jurgensen-designed machine.

Questions and Answers

New time saving voting machine 05/10/1938

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/hec2009015711/

bulk data task force update
Bulk Data Task Force Update

Robert Reeves

Office of the Clerk

bulk data task force and transparency updates
Bulk Data Task Force and Transparency Updates

Since our last meeting on January 30, 2013 here’s what we’ve been up to:

bulk data task force and transparency updates4
Bulk Data Task Force and Transparency Updates
  • Other projects:
  • Bulk Data Bill Summaries
  • House Modernization Project
  • Data Challenge
  • Data Dashboard
  • Clerk Twitter Account
  • Clerk/History Arts & Archives YouTube
library of congress and gpo plans and developments
Library of Congress and GPO Plans and Developments

Tammie Nelson

Library of Congress

Matt Landgraf

Government Printing Office

slide26

GPO/LOC Collaboration: Digitization of Core Legislative Materials

Matt Landgraf - GPO

May 22, 2013

background
Background
  • Joint Committee on Printing approved collaboration on digitization of:
    • Statutes at Large
    • Bound Congressional Record
roles and responsibilities
Roles and Responsibilities
  • Library of Congress:
    • Performs digitization
    • Provides files to GPO
  • GPO:
    • Creates access copies
    • Creates metadata
statutes at large status
Statutes at Large Status
  • All work for volumes from 1951-2002 has been completed
    • Currently available via FDsys
    • Access files and metadata have been provided to LOC (to be available on congress.gov in the future)
bound congressional record status
Bound Congressional Record Status
  • LOC Digitization (1873-1998) to be completed by the end of calendar year 2013
  • FDsys development underway
  • Resources being identified for metadata creation
  • Content will be released on an iterative basis via FDsys, beginning in FY 2014
bound congressional record key issues
Bound Congressional Record: Key Issues
  • Size of collection
  • Large effort required to create descriptive metadata and access files at the article level
official tools demonstration panel
Official Tools Demonstration Panel

Michael Baker

House Committee on Ways and Means

Stephen Dwyer

Office of the Democratic Whip

Kathleen Swiatek

Government Printing Office

the official intranet for house democratic staff

The Official Intranet for House Democratic Staff

Presentation by Steve Dwyer, Office of the Democratic Whip

history origin
Originally launched in early 2009

We recently launched our 3rd major iteration

Private—only House Democratic staffers have access

Why did we build it?

Why Democrats-only?

History & Origin
organization
Over 120,000 nodes and counting

How do we organize content?

Primarily by legislation

General issue tags

“Specific Topics” for big non-bill items

Authoring office and staffer

Organization
data sources utilized
GovTrac for legislative information

House LDAP for permissions and credentials

Housenet’s e-Dear Colleague system

DemocraticWhip.gov for House Floor schedule

Data Sources Utilized
data sources utilized continued
Docs.house.gov for Committee schedules

POPVOX for organization letters and public sentiment

Staffer data from a commercial vendor

Significant private listservs are auto-consumed

Data Sources Utilized (continued)
the official intranet for house democratic staff1

The Official Intranet for House Democratic Staff

Presentation by Steve Dwyer, Office of the Democratic Whip

international update
International Update

GherardoCasini

Global Center for ICT

electronic legislative archiving panel
Electronic Legislative Archiving Panel

James Jacobs

Government Information Librarian, Stanford Univ.

Lisa LaPlant

Government Printing Office

Marc Levitt

Byrd Center for Legislative Studies

slide41

Preserving Electronic Legislative Information in FDsys

Legislative Data Transparency Conference

May 22, 2013

Lisa LaPlant

GPO

gpo s mission
GPO’s Mission

Keeping America Informed by producing, protecting, preserving, and distributing the official publications and information products of the Federal Government.

legislative publications
Legislative Publications
  • Bills and Resolutions
  • Committee Materials
  • Congressional Calendars
  • Congressional Directory
  • Congressional Record
  • United States Code
  • Journal of the House of Representatives
  • Procedural and Precedential Materials
digital preservation
Digital Preservation
  • Combination of the policies, strategies, and actions that ensure access to reformatted and born digital content regardless of the challenges of media failure and technology change.
preservation goal
Preservation Goal
  • Accurately render authenticated content over time.
preservation objectives
Preservation Objectives
  • Safeguard digital content along with all relevant metadata.
  • Assess the condition and needs of collections of digital information.
  • Meaningfully render content despite continuously changing technology.
  • Manage processes which are auditable, replicable, and that build the basis for trust.
slide48

OAIS Reference Model

Producer

Consumer

Preservation Planning

Data Management

Ingest

Access

Archival

Storage

System Administration

slide49

Package Based Approach

Package 1

Rendition 1

Content

Files

Rendition 2

Content

Files

aip.xml

mods.xml

premis.xml

premis
PREMIS
  • Record each significant event in the lifecycle of content in PREMIS metadata.
  • Record the content source, changes that have occurred since the content was created or acquired, and who has custody of the content.
slide51

Events Recorded in PREMIS

Software Activities:

  • Digest Calculation
  • Ingest
  • Fixity Check
  • Rendition Creation
  • ACP Creation
  • Digital Signing
  • Parsing

User Activities:

  • Rendition Upload
  • Rendition Deletion
  • Submission
  • Replacement
  • AIP Deletion
preservation strategies
Preservation Strategies
  • Refreshment (bit-level preservation)Content is transferred from one physical medium to another.
  • MigrationContent is converted or transformed into a more recent version or a more widely used format.
more information
More Information

Lisa LaPlant

Office of Programs, Strategy, and Technology, GPO

llaplant@gpo.gov

GPO’s FDsys

www.fdsys.gov

Preservation in FDsys

www.gpo.gov/preservation

archiving senator byrd s e records

Archiving Senator Byrd’s E-Records

Marc Levitt

Director of Archives

Robert C. Byrd Center for Legislative Studies

records received migrated
Records Received & Migrated
  • Early Petitions (1790-1817)- PDFs with OCR
  • Byrd Migration Projects:
    • Photographs- TIFF
    • A/V Material- Outside Vendor
    • Microfilm- PDFs, then OCR (in-house)
  • Byrd Capture Projects:
    • CSPAN floor speeches
    • Congressional Record PDFs
  • Byrd Office Files Received:
    • Hard drive with files from the shared drive
    • Constituent Services System (CSS) data on 2 DVDs
case study css processing
Case Study: CSS Processing
  • Hired a contractor
  • Script to automate ingestion of data
  • CSV tables cleaned and optimized with Google Refine
  • SQL database created
  • Waiting for installation
what the office uses
What the Office Uses:

Senator Byrd confers with President Jimmy Carter at the White House. (August 23, 1977). Official White House Photo.

what is archived by the vendor
What is Archived by the Vendor:
  • <A color photograph of Senator Byrd (left) and President Carter discuss issues in an office.>
  • <Senator Byrd is seated on a floral print couch.>
  • <President Carter is seated on a blue chair.>
  • <Flower curtains hang behind the men.>
  • <A white lamp sits on a brown table between them.>
not the same
Loss of information and context through 3 phases of data migrationNot the Same:

Full picture and functionality in original record

issues
Issues
  • Authenticity and Reliability
  • Standardization
  • Organization Schema
  • What to Save (and why it’s okay to do so)
third party extensions of legislative xml panel
Third Party Extensions of Legislative XML Panel

Daniel Bennett

eCitizen

Jim Harper

CATO Institute

Eric Mill

Sunlight Foundation

slide65

Extending

Congressional XML:

Transparency,

Soup to Nuts

slide66

Extending XML

  • “Soup to Nuts”
  • American English idiom conveying the meaning of "from beginning to end“
  • Derived from the description of a full course dinner, in which courses progress from soup to a dessert of nuts
slide67

Extending XML

“Deepbills” Project

CatoXML

http://www.cato.org/resources/data

slide76

Extending XML

What can YOU build?

slide77

Extending XML

“Deepbills” Project

CatoXML

http://www.cato.org/resources/data

under digitized legislative data panel
Under-digitized Legislative Data Panel

Anne Washington

George Washington University

Grant Vergottini

Xcential, Inc.

Josh Tauberer

GovTrack

why digitize
Why Digitize?

Anne L. Washington, PhD

George Mason University, School of Public Policy

May 2013

Legislative Data Standards Conference

US House of Representatives

political informatics
Political Informatics

Poli-Informatics

  • Computational science & "big data"
    • Data visualization
    • Machine learning
  • Study of politics and government

http://poliinformatics.org

poli informatics could
Poli-Informatics could…
  • Visualize complex policy solutions.
  • Predict procedural progress through language.
  • View nested organizational hierarchies impacted by a policy.
  • Gather single policy idea across multiple ideological discourses.
  • Track policy developments over time.
joint pi net
Joint PI-net
  • George Mason University
  • University of Washington
  • Northwestern University
  • Cornell University
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • & YOU !
http poliinformatics org
http://poliinformatics.org

Anne L. Washington, PhD

http://washington.gmu.edu

awashi14@gmu.edu

Assistant Professor

School of Public Policy

Organizational Development & Knowledge Management

George Mason University, Arlington VA

digitizing legislative data from documents to data to information and beyond

Digitizing Legislative DataFrom documents to data to information and beyond

Grant Vergottini

May 22, 2013

digitizing legislative data from d ocuments to data to information and beyond
Digitizing Legislative DataFrom documents to data to information and beyond

Future

Now

Past

Data Scraping

XML Download

Web Services

Akoma Ntoso

Standards-Based XML

Proprietary XML

Open XML

step 1 legislative documents online putting the documents online
Step 1: Legislative Documents OnlinePutting the documents online
  • Simple systems
  • Geared towards people rather than programs
  • Data Scraping for programs
  • Roll your own XML
  • Maintain your own repository

Past

Data Scraping

Proprietary XML

step 2 legislative data sources improving data accuracy
Step 2: Legislative Data SourcesImproving data accuracy
  • Authentic data
  • More sophisticated Web Sites
  • Download XML directly
  • Open Gov. data formats
  • Still need your own repository

Now

Past

Data Scraping

XML Download

Proprietary XML

Open XML

next legislative information services
Next: Legislative Information Services

Future

Now

Past

XML Download

Web Services

Akoma Ntoso

Standards-Based XML

Proprietary XML

Open XML

step 3 legislative information services connecting the information
Step 3: Legislative Information ServicesConnecting the information
  • More reliable data
    • Authentic HTML & XML
  • More useful data
    • Consumer rather than producer oriented
    • Simpler standards-based information models
    • Linked citations & other metadata
    • Microformats & Microdata for HTML
  • More timely data
    • Web services rather than download
    • Link services stitch data together
    • Robust repository services – search, query

Future

Web Services

Akoma Ntoso

Standards-Based XML

step 4 the vision connecting the world
Step 4: The VisionConnecting the world
  • State & Federal Laws
  • Regulations to Legislation
  • Treaties & Trade Agreements
slide91

So what’s left to do?

Joshua Tauberer (@JoshData)

GovTrack.us

Legislative Data & Standards

May 22, 2013

slide92

All legislative events are recorded

in structured data.

All legislative artifacts are

publicly available.

(How hard could that be, right?)

slide93

Legislative Data

  • Bill Summary & Status
  • Amendment Status & Text
  • List of Members
  • Committee Artifacts
  • Historical Bill Text, Statutes, and so on.
wrapping up
Wrapping Up

ReynoldSchweickhardt

Director of Technology

Committee on House Administration

slide97

Legislative Data

and

Transparency

Conference

Thank you for participating!