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HFT PIXEL Detector WBS 1.2. Howard Wieman LBNL. Topics - PXL (WBS 1.2). PXL design and status Deliverables Development and Construction Plan Schedule Risks Cost Manpower. Pixel geometry. These inner two layers provide the projection precision. End view. 8 cm radius. 20 cm.

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Hft pixel detector wbs 1 2

HFT PIXEL DetectorWBS 1.2

Howard Wieman LBNL

Topics pxl wbs 1 2
Topics - PXL (WBS 1.2)

  • PXL design and status

  • Deliverables

  • Development and Construction Plan

  • Schedule

  • Risks

  • Cost

  • Manpower

Pixel geometry these inner two layers provide the projection precision
Pixel geometry. These inner two layers provide the projection precision

End view

8 cm radius

20 cm

2.5 cm radius

Inner layer

Outer layer

 coverage +-1

One of two half cylinders

total 40 ladders

Some pixel features and specifications
Some pixel features and specifications projection precision




more than a factor of 3 better than other vertex detectors (ATLAS, ALICE and PHENIX)

Performance features
Performance features projection precision

pointing accuracy comparison

Hybrid uncertainty area


MAPS uncertainty area

  • 50 m Silicon detector chips, MAPS

    • thin

    • small pixels, high resolution

  • Air cooling

  • Mechanical stability

Alternate technologies considered
Alternate Technologies Considered projection precision

  • Hybrid

    • X0 large (1.2%)

    • Pixel Size large (50 m x 450 m)

    • Specialized manufacturing - not readily available

  • CCDs

    • Limited radiation tolerance

    • Slow frame rate, pileup issues

    • Specialized manufacturing


    • Specialized manufacturing

    • very aggressive unproven technology

Stability requirement drives design choices

The detector ladders are thinned silicon, on a flex kapton/aluminum cable

The large CTE difference between silicon and kapton is a potential source of thermal induced deformation even with modest 10-15 deg C temperature swings

Two methods of control

ALICE style carbon composite sector support beam with large moment of inertia

Soft decoupling adhesive bonding ladder layers

Stability requirement drives design choices

Hft pxl status
HFT PXL status kapton/aluminum cable

  • Mechanical stability analysis completed (controlled to 20 m)

    • thermal deformation

    • gravity induced sag

    • humidity induced deformation

    • support vibration

Hft pxl status thermal analysis and testing
HFT PXL status-thermal analysis and testing kapton/aluminum cable

  • Silicon power: 100 raised to 170 mW/cm2 (~ power of sunlight)

  • 350 W total Si + drivers

PXL status - thermal test results kapton/aluminum cable



Hot spots for images at location 0-21 cm (3 cm step): 41.2, 42.5, 41.4, 41.6, 41.4, 40.5, 40.1, 38.3 ºC


“sensor” heaters: ~230 W

Pt heaters: ~25 W

Driver heaters: ~40 W

Total: ~295 W

Airflow 16 m/s

∆T above ambient room temperature: 11.5 deg C

Hft pxl status air flow vibration tests

3 kapton/aluminum cableµm

3 µm

2 µm

8 µm

4 µm

11 µm

HFT PXL status – air flow vibration tests

carbon fiber sector beam

capacitance vibration probe

two positions shown

air in

air out


wall for air

turn around



no reinforcement at the end

air velocity probe

two positions


Hft pxl status insertion design
HFT PXL status – insertion design kapton/aluminum cable

insertion mechanism to guide detector around beam pipe and beam pipe support

uses track and carriage with hinge and cam to guide into final docking position

Hft pxl status installation design
HFT PXL status – installation design kapton/aluminum cable

  • a well controlled method for installation of the pixel detector has been developed with emphasis on ease of operation and avoidance of detector risk

  • The PXL assembly will be enclosed in a carrying box that is equipped for transfer of the detector assembly into the PXL support tube

  • Once inserted on tracks the detector is guided into position locking kinematic mounts

Pxl deliverables
PXL Deliverables kapton/aluminum cable

  • Pixel Insertion Structure

  • Pixel Insertion Tool

  • a total of 10 sectors, with each sector containing:

    • one ladder at a radius of 2.5 cm

    • three ladders at a radius of 8.0 cm

  • With each ladder containing:

    • ten Si detector elements

    • one readout board

  • two DAQ receiver PCs

  • PC based control and monitoring system

  • two clam shells, with 5 sectors integrated and aligned on each clam shell

  • The two clam shells will be installed in Pixel Insertion Tools, ready for insertion onto the New Cone Structure

  • One additional complete detector and sufficient sector and populated ladder components to have the capability to fabricate two more complete detector assemblies

  • Provide services including cabling and cooling

Pxl wbs items high level
PXL WBS items (high level) kapton/aluminum cable

  • 1.2.1 PXL Mechanics

    • Module Support (Sector)

    • Detector Support (D-Tube/Kinematic Mount)

    • Insertion Mechanism and Internal Service Support

  • 1.2.2 PXL Electronics

    • Phase-1 PXL Sensor Chips

    • Final PXL Sensor Chips

    • Ladder Cable

    • PXL Prototype Ladder Assembly

    • Read-Out Electronics

    • PXL Sensor Ladder Production

  • 1.2.3 Detector Assembly

    • Prototype Sector Assembly

    • D-Tube Assembly and Survey Tool (Engineering)

    • Sector Mount and Survey (Engineering)

    • Final Assembly (Engineering)

    • Production Sector Assembly

    • D-Tube Assembly

    • Sector Mount and Survey

    • Final Assembly (Production)

    • System Test (Production)

  • 1.2.4 Infrastructure

    • Cables

    • Cooling Services

    • Rack Equipment

  • 1.2.5 Installation

    • Pixel Installation in-situ

Electronics development plan
Electronics Development Plan kapton/aluminum cable

  • Develop sensor chips, 3 generation program (WBS

  • Develop readout electronics (WBS

    • STAR compatible readout system - limited channel count

    • Upgrade to full detector capability

  • Develop flex PC readout cable (WBS

    • copper version

    • aluminum version

  • Develop chip testing and characterization system (WBS,

    • chip level

    • probe test level

  • Production testing of ladders (WBS

Mechanical development plan
Mechanical Development plan kapton/aluminum cable

  • Design detector structures (WBS,, 1.2.3)

  • Design fabrication tooling (WBS, 1.2.3)

  • Design installation (WBS, 1.2.5)

  • Analyze structure stability and cooling (WBS

  • Prototype structures using developed tooling (WBS,,

  • Test structure stability and cooling (WBS,,

  • Prototype installation and insertion (WBS,

  • Prototype sectors with prototype sensors (WBS,

  • Design and build cooling plant (WBS

  • Test engineering prototype

  • Install and operate engineering prototype (WBS 1.2.5)

  • Produce final detector sectors (WBS

  • Test final detector system (WBS

  • Install and operate final detector system (WBS 1.2.5)

milestones kapton/aluminum cable

Electronic manpower 5 yr period
Electronic Manpower (5 yr period) kapton/aluminum cable

Mechanics manpower 5 yr period
Mechanics Manpower (5 yr period) kapton/aluminum cable

Summary kapton/aluminum cable

  • MAPS technology development going well

  • Readout electronics well advanced and tested

  • Very low mass detector support designs have passed multiple analysis tests and prototype tests addressing cooling and position stability.

  • Tooling is in place and tested for sector/ladder production

  • Concept designs for installation and insertion are well advanced

  • Risks have been identified and are being addressed at an early stage

  • Design and testing have matured sufficiently to make accurate cost estimates

backup kapton/aluminum cable

Sensor and readout development plan

Mimostar–2 kapton/aluminum cable

30 µm pixel, 128 x 128 array

1.7 ms integration time

1 analog output


30 µm pixel, 320 x 640 array

2.0 ms integration time

2 analog outputs


30 µm pixel, 640 x 640 array

640 µs integration time, CDS

4 binary digital outputs

Final (Ultimate)

18.4 µm pixel, 1024 x 1088 array

≤ 200 µs integration time, CDS,

zero suppression

2 digital outputs (addresses)

Sensor and Readout Development Plan



Sensor RDO

50 MHz readout clock

JTAG interface, control infrastructure

ADCs, FPGA CDS & cluster finding

zero suppression

≤ 4 sensor simultaneous readout

160 MHz readout clock

JTAG interface, control infrastructure

zero suppression

120 sensor simultaneous readout

160 MHz readout clock

JTAG interface, control infrastructure

400 sensor simultaneous readout

(full system)