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Big Idea PowerPoint Presentation

Big Idea

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Big Idea

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  1. Big Idea The ocean is important yet relatively unexplored

  2. The Science of Marine Biology

  3. Marine Biology • Study of all living things in the ocean • Involves chemistry, earth science , physics and biology

  4. Chemistry of Ocean Water • Amount of dissolved materials-gases, salts, nutrients • Novel compounds made by marine organisms- many marine animals cope with their world chemically • Marine pollution and climate change -How atmosphere’s CO2 increases ocean acidity • Chemical cycles-How materials are cycled through the oceans

  5. Chemistry • Example- Researching changing pH of the oceans and its effect on marine life

  6. Earth Science • Plate tectonics • Volcanoes, earthquakes, sea floor spreading, subduction zones all affect the shape of the ocean basins • Coastal processes • Waves and wind, storms all change the shape of our coastlines

  7. Earth Science Ex- Mapping the sea floor with sonar and discovering new volcanoes •

  8. Aug-Oct 2006


  10. Physics • Motion in the ocean-currents, waves, tides • Move heat energy and materials around the ocean basins • Interaction between the ocean surface and atmosphere • Climate control, water cycle and earth’s energy budget

  11. Physics Modeling underwater robot movement on the movement of sting rays-which swim very efficiently •

  12. Biology • Ex.-Recent discovery offluorescent fish species and possible uses in research

  13. Importance of the Oceans • Source of food • 16% of all animal protein consumed worldwide comes from the oceans • We are catching fish faster than they can reproduce • 60-70% of fish types are in danger

  14. • Estimates that 8-25% of what is caught is bycatch that is discarded

  15. Importance of the Oceans • Source of medicine • Vitamin A and D from cod liver oil • antibiotics from algae • heart rate controllers from some fish venom, etc.

  16. Importance of the Oceans • Source of raw materials • Oil, natural gas • Drilling through the crust offshore • Minerals, rare earth metals • Interest in mining or vacuuming up materials from the seabed • Environmental risks from these activities make both somewhat controversial


  18. Importance of the Oceans • Recreation and Tourism • 6.3 billion dollars in Monmouth and Ocean county in 2012 • Revenue down 20-40% since Hurricane Sandy

  19. Importance of the Oceans • Animal Models for Research • Squid…..nervous system “Smart squid may unlock the secret of how animals and people learn” • Horseshoe crabs…..sight "20/20 Foresight: Studying Vision of Horseshoe Crabs." Robert Bazell, correspondent. NBC Today Show. NBCUniversal Media. 24 Sep. 1984. NBC Learn. Web. 5 September 2012.

  20. Can we put a number on it??? • Annual value of ocean resources is about 20 trillion dollars

  21. Importance of the Oceans • Climate Control • Cycles heat, water and CO2 • Complex phenomena like El Nino and the North Atlantic Oscillation are caused by the ocean atmosphere connection • Atmospheric Connection • Gases are continuously moving between ocean and atmosphere • Ocean phytoplankton account for 90% of world oxygen production


  23. The Historyof Marine Biology

  24. Coastal people of every culture since the beginning of time have accumulated knowledge of the oceans • Stone age- evidence of early fishing practices • Egyptians- Hieroglyphic warnings not to eat puffer fish • Early Greeks- Used electric sting ray for electric shock therapy • Aristotle- first marine biologist ie- first written observations of marine life

  25. Early navigation and exploration aided in the knowledge of our oceans • Early maps… • Ancient Pacific Islanders • 3 dimensional maps of sticks, shells and string • First navigators (1200-250 BC) • Phoenicians- circumnavigate Africa, built lighthouses…) • Vikings (~1000 AD) • Discovered N America • Arab traders (1100’s AD) • Amassed knowledge of winds and currents


  27. European exploration from the Renaissance on was for trade and then curiosity • Mid 17th to 18th century • James Cook • Used a chronometer (and accurate timepiece)and knowledge of latitude and longitude to make accurate maps • Mapped out many islands in the South Pacific • Benjamin Franklin • Mapped out the Gulf Stream current in the Atlantic Ocean using observations from merchant ships

  28. Comparing maps of Gulf Stream

  29. 19th Century Exploration for pure science • Charles Darwin (HMS Beagle) • Collection and recorded observations of animal and plant life from west coast of South America including barnacles • Theory of Natural Selection • Theory of formation of coral atolls

  30. 19th Century Exploration for pure science • Edward Forbes • Founder of the science of marine biology • Charles Thompson (HMS Challenger) • Founder of oceanography • Voyage collected sediment from ocean floor, water samples, collected and described 4700 species of marine life, recorded data on ocean including temperature, pressure, tides and wave action

  31. 20th Century to present-Long term studies of marine life • Marine labs- permanent facilities for research • Ex. NOAA labs in Woods Hole Mass. Sandy Hook NJ James J Howard Lab Sandy Hook, NJ

  32. Marine Science Today • Less than 5% of ocean has been explored • Advances in technology have expanded our understanding of the oceans • Study ocean from space to the deepest depths • Problem solving approach of the scientific method is used to conduct research

  33. Technology is used for • Transportation to study area • Observing and counting • Collecting organisms • Measuring physical properties • Studying movement • Identifying and cataloging • Compiling and analyzing data

  34. SCUBA A portable apparatus containing compressed air and used for breathing under water.

  35. ROV • Remotely operated, robotic submersible

  36. submersible • Submergible. n. A vessel capable of operating or remaining under water. •

  37. Satellite • An object launched to orbit Earth

  38. chronometer • An exceptionally precise timepiece

  39. Unit Activities • Future shark • Critter cam movie • El nino activity / Topex poiseidon • Ocean drilling movie • Earth Science oceans • Poster • Threats to the Ocean HW • Study guide