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5 th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling. Translation Patterns to Specify Processes in the PSL Ontology. Context. Domain: Manufacturing Process. PSL. Interoperation. Definition.

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context
Context

Domain:

Manufacturing Process

PSL

Interoperation

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

definition
Definition

“An Ontology is a formal explicit specification of a sharedconceptualization for a domain of interest”

T. Gruber: “A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications”. In Knowledge Acquisition, Vol. 5, 1993, pp. 199-220.

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

psl ontology
PSL Ontology
  • PSL: Process Specification Language
  • Author: National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST – http://www.nist.gov/)
  • Domain of Application: Manufacturing Processes.
  • Sample of concepts and their relationships: activity, activity occurrence, duration, object, sub-activity, consumes …

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

psl ontology1
PSL Ontology
  • Documentation: http://www.mel.nist.gov/psl/
  • Formalism: First-Order Logic (FOL)
  • Structure: Layered FOL theories (lattice of theories related by ‘extension’).
  • Language: Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) … any FOL language would suffice (e.g. UML’s Object Constraint Language – OCL).

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

example of a psl specification simple sequential process
Example of a PSL Specification: Simple Sequential Process

Consider a complex activity a, with primitive subactivities a1 and a2, respectively. Assume that we want to express the process characterized by occurrences of a1 followed by occurrences of a2, such that:

  • There are no occurrences before a1 and after a2.
  • There are no occurrences of a between a1 and a2.

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

example of a psl specification simple sequential process1
Example of a PSL Specification: Simple Sequential Process

[1](activity a)

[2](activity a1)

[3](activity a2)

[4](subactivity a1 a)

[5](subactivity a2 a)

[6](primitive a1)

[7](primitive a2)

[8](forall (?occ_a)

[9] (implies

[10] (and (occurrence_of ?occ_a a)

[11] (legal ?occ_a))

[12] (exists (?occ_a1 ?occ_a2)

[13] (and

[14] (occurrence_of ?occ_a1 a1)

[15] (legal ?occ_a1)

[16] (occurrence_of ?occ_a2 a2)

[17] (legal ?occ_a2)

[18] (subactivity_occurrence ?occ_a1 ?occ_a)

[19] (subactivity_occurrence ?occ_a2 ?occ_a)

[20] (root_occ ?occ_a1 ?occ_a)

[21] (next_subocc ?occ_a1 ?occ_a2 a)

[22] (leaf_occ ?occ_a2 ?occ_a)))))

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

example of a psl specification simple sequential process2
Example of a PSL Specification: Simple Sequential Process

[1]let a be an activity

[2]let a1 be an activity

[3]let a2 be an activity

[4]let a1 be a subactivity of a

[5]let a2 be a subactivity of a

[6]let a1 be primitive

[7]let a2 be primitive

[8]for all ?occ_a:

[9] if

[10] ?occ_a is an occurrence of a and

[11] ?occ_a is legal, then

[12] there exist ?occ_a1, ?occ_a2, such that

[13]

[14] ?occ_a1 is an occurrence of a1, and

[15] ?occ_a1 is legal, and

[16] ?occ_a2 is an occurrence of a2, and

[17] ?occ_a2 is legal, and

[18] ?occ_a1 is a

subactivity occurrence of ?occ_a, and

[19] ?occ_a2 is a

subactivity occurrence of ?occ_a, and

[20] ?occ_a1 is the

root occurrence of ?occ_a, and

[21] ?occ_a2 strictly follows ?occ_a1 in

the activity tree of a, and

[22] ?occ_a2 is the leaf occurrence of ?occ_a

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

this paper
This Paper
  • Derives patterns that can be used to generate PSL specifications of processes comprised of activities, which can be complex/primitive, and are composed:
    • Sequentially.
    • Concurrently.

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

questions
Questions?
  • Thanks!

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

slide11

The End

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

outline
Outline
  • Starting with the Basics
  • Definitions
  • Examples/Applications
  • Requirements
  • Research Problems
  • Summary
  • References

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

starting with the basics
Starting with the Basics
  • From the Merrian-Webster Dictionary:

Main Entry: on·tol·o·gyPronunciation: än-'tä-l&-jEFunction: nounEtymology: New Latin ontologia, from ont- + -logia -logy1: a branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being2: a particular theory about the nature of being or the kinds of existents- on·tol·o·gist /-jist/ noun

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

definitions
Definitions

Application

Body of

Concepts

Application

Domain

Applications

Local Lingo

Applications

Local Lingo

Applications

Local Lingo

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

definitions1
Definitions

Application

Domain:

Cooking

Appetizers: Guacamole

Local Lingo: Aguacate (L.A.)

Appetizers: Guacamole

Local Lingo: avocado (US, L.A.)

Appetizers: Guacamole

Local Lingo: Palta (Chile)

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

definitions2
Definitions

Application

Body of

Concepts

Application

Domain

Applications

Local Lingo

Applications

Local Lingo

Ontology:

Common

Lingo!

Applications

Local Lingo

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

definitions3
Definitions

Application

Domain:

Cooking

Appetizers: Guacamole

Local Lingo: Aguacate (L.A.)

Appetizers: Guacamole

Local Lingo: avocado (US, L.A.)

Ontology:

Scientific

Classification

Appetizers: Guacamole

Local Lingo: Palta (Chile)

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

definitions4
Definitions

Application

Domain:

Cooking

Ontology:

Scientific

Classification

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

definitions5
Definitions

Approaches to

Interoperability

A1

A1

A2

A3

A2

A3

Ontology!

A4

A4

A5

A5

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

examples application
Examples/Application
  • Web Ontology Language – OWL:
    • Resource Description Framework (RDF) and its vocabulary description language (RDFS – RDF Scheme).
    • DAML+OIL: joint effort …
      • DARPAAgent Markup Language (US)
      • Ontology Inference Language (ontoknowledge.org Sponsored by European Community)
  • Fundamental Application: Semantic Web …

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

requirements
Requirements
  • Formalism-based:
    • Syntax and Semantics
    • Model-based: set theory, logic, algebras
  • Ability to reason:
    • Use theorem provers, inference engines
  • Ability to transport knowledge (domain-specific, lingo-neutral)
  • Usability:
    • Humans do not directly use Ontologies, tools enable their use

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

research problems
Research Problems
  • Core (Domain-Independent):
    • New Formalisms (RDF, RDFS, F-Logic, Ontology Algebras)
    • Frameworks/Tools to engineer ontologies (ONTOCLEAN, OTKM).
  • Domain-Dependent:
    • Medical
    • Defense/Intelligence
    • Manufacturing
    • Software Engineering
    • Semantic Web
    • Modeling

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

summary
Summary
  • Requirements:
    • Formalism-based
    • Ability to reason
    • Ability to transport knowledge (domain-specific, lingo-neutral)
    • Usability
  • Research:
    • Core research
    • Applied research

A1

A2

A3

Ontology!

A4

A5

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation

references
References
  • Many references embedded in the document as hyperlinks.
  • S. Staab, R. Studer (Editors): “Handbook of Ontologies”. Springer-Verlag, 2004.
  • T. Berners-Lee, J. Hendler, O. Lassila: “The Semantic Web”. Scientific American, May 2001.

5th OOPSLA Workshop on Domain-Specific Modeling – Sánchez & Hansen Presentation