Effects of Social Metacognition on Micro-Creativity : Statistical Discourse Analyses of Group Problem Solving. Ming Ming Chiu State University of New York – Buffalo email@example.com I appreciate the research assistance of Choi Yik Ting and Kuo Sze Wing.
Ming Ming ChiuState University of New York – Buffalo
firstname.lastname@example.orgI appreciate the research assistance of Choi Yik Ting and Kuo Sze Wing
How many text messages do you send each month?
2) Which company costs less for you?
3) How many texts should you send for the
Universal plan and the Budget plan
to cost the same?Solving problems & Micro-creativity
( Sternberg & Lubart, 1999 )
( Gruber & Wallace, 1999 )
( Chiu, 2008 )
Monitoring and control of one’s knowledge and actions
( Flavell, 1971; Hacker, 1998 )
Group members’ monitoring and control of one another’s knowledge and actions
( Chiu, in press)
Most individuals have poor metacognition.
( Hacker & Bol, 2004 )
indicate knowledge gaps
Identifies gap in someone’s understanding
Motivates and points out a way to fill the gap to create a new idea (+)
Use old or new info to explain/justify (+)
(Coleman, 1998; Webb, Troper & Fall, 1995; DeLisi & Goldbeck, 1999 )
Overcome via new ideas and/or justifications (+)
(Doise, Mugny & Perret-Clermont, 1975; Piaget, 1985)
Face = Public Self-image
Disagree rudely (attack face)
vs. Disagree politely (save face)
( Brown & Levinson, 1987 )
“Ten times two hundred.”
“No, you’re wrong, it’s one tenth times two hundred.”
Previous speaker more likely to retaliate
Reduce new ideas & justifications ()
( Chiu & Khoo, 2003; Gottman & Krokoff, 1989 )
“if we want it in dollars,
we can multiply two hundred by one tenth.”
Save previous speaker’s face
Listen & understand obstacle
Overcome via new ideas & justifications (+)
( Chiu & Khoo, 2003 )
Agree too much
Concern for social relationship
Reluctant to disagree with wrong ideas
Fewer new ideas & justifications (–)
( Person, Kreuz, Zwaan, & Graesser, 1995; Tann, 1979; Tudge,1989 )
Ruder than question
Distract from problem solving
Fewer new ideas & justifications (–)
(Brown & Levinson, 1987; Chiu,2008 )
Ask Questions (+)
Face / Rudeness
Politely Disagree (+)
Rudely Disagree (–)
Excessively Agree (–)
Gender, ethnicity, …
Group mean grade,
Group gender variance …
Jay: A hundred eighty dollars.
Ben: If we multiply by ten cents, don’t we get
a hundred and eighty cents?
Evaluation of the previous action
Knowledge content regarding problem
Invitation to participate
Minimize Number of Coding Decisions to inter-coder reliability
• Minimize Depth of decision tree
• Put highly likely actions at the top
Do any of the clauses proscribe an action?
• Yes, code as a command
• No, code as an question Based on Labov (2001), Tsui (1992)
Add other variables at each speaker turn:
Student: Gender, ethnicity, mid-year algebra grade, …
Group: Group’s mean mid-year algebra grade, …
Statistical Discourse Analysis
Critical events radically change interactions
Statistically identify breakpoints
Test possible combinations of breakpoints
Model with smallest Bayesian Info Criterion (BIC)
Explain the most variance w/ fewest breakpoints
% New ideas
Model with lag outcomes
e.g. Justify (-1)
Discrete outcomes (Yes / No)
New idea & Justify
Logit / Probit
2 speakers ago = (– 2)
1 speaker ago = (– 1)
Ben: 10 times 18 is
Jay: Wrong, 180 dollars.
Missing data (101?001?10)
2.65 new idea breakpoints per group
3.65 time periods per group (min=1; max =6)
2.05 justification breakpoints per group
3.05 time periods per group (min=1; max =6)
Number of breakpoints did not differ across groups that solved vs. did not solve the problem
Ana How can they be equal?
Bob I don’t know
Cate Try another number?
Dan Which number?
[8 seconds of silence; each student looks at own paper]
Cate[looks at Ana’s paper] Yours is much closer.
So, try a number close to yours
Dan [looks at Ana’s paper] Mine’s even closer
Ana [looks at Dan’s paper] Oh! More messages get us
Kay Let’s try a hundred.
Lee Ok. That’s a thousand.
Tom And that’s one, so nineteen.
Kay That’s like over nine hundred away.
Jan Maybe it’s one of those trick questions.
Tom Yeah, like it can’t be done.
Kay So, maybe there’s no answer.
Lee Then, we’re done.
Previous turn (-1)Current turnOutcomes
Rudely Disagree (-1)
Rudely Disagree (-1) * Unsolved
Rudely Disagree (-1) *Wrong (-2)
Math grade (-1)
Math grade (-1) *Unsolved
Negative effect of Rudely disagree (-1) on new ideas
Negative effect of Math grade (-1) on justifications
Mathematics grade’s effect on justifications
Differed across both time periods and across groups
-2% to +1% in unsuccessful groups
-1% to +3% in successful groups
Questions were not linked to
New idea or Justifications
were not linked to Justifications
Increase Group Micro-creativity
What major or momentary events affect
people’s behaviors over time during …
Does the speaker express any mathematics or problem-related information?
Bayesian Information Criterion