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Magnetic islands observed by a fast-framing tangentially viewing soft X-ray camera on LHD and TEXTOR. National Institute for Fusion Science S. Ohdachi. Outline of my talk. Good to study magnetic islands(e.g. NTM) <-> Difficulty in interpretation

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Slide1 l.jpg

Magnetic islands observed by a fast-framing tangentially viewing soft X-ray camera on LHD and TEXTOR

National Institute for Fusion Science

S. Ohdachi


Outline of my talk l.jpg
Outline of my talk

Good to study magnetic islands(e.g. NTM) <-> Difficulty in interpretation

  • Merit of the tangential imaging system for fluctuation measurements / study of the magnetic islands.

  • Tangentially viewing soft X-ray cameara / sample video.

  • SVD method for separation of the fluctuating components

    Spatial structure of rotating islands can be extracted by this.

  • Tomographic reconstruction methods developed in 2D tomography. Assumptions in the reconstruction of tangential case – equivalent line of sights on a poloidal plane toroidal symmetry / helical symmetry / magnetic field line

  • Experimental results on TEXTOR/LHD.

  • Summary

    Thanks to the LHD experiment group, the TEXTOR team,

    IEA agreement between JAPAN and TEXTOR.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Merit of the tangentially viewing camera l.jpg
Merit of the tangentially viewing camera

m/n=3/2

m/n=10/5

m/n=3/2

  • Poloidal mode number can be distinguished from the raw data easily without complicated reconstruction.

  • When the perturbations are localized on magnetic field lines, tangentially viewing measurements give a good contrast even for high mode numbers.

Tangentially viewing

on simple torus

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


History of tangential imaging sx l.jpg
History of tangential imaging (SX)

From X-ray radiation, we can study core plasma.

(Edge plasma for Bolometer, Visible lights measurements)

  • 1980s

    • Nagoya Univ. (CLEO, MCP, S. Takamura et. al., Nucl. Fusion Vol. 23 (1983) 1485)

    • PPPL (PBX-M, P20+MCP, R. J. Fonck et. al., RSI Vol. 59 (1988)1831)

  • 1990s

    • PPPL (PBX-M, SXII, S. von Goeler et. al., RSI Vol. 65 (1994)1621)

    • NIFS (LHD, SX CCD, Y. Liang et. al., RSI, Vol.72 (2001)717)

    • PPPL + IPP Juelich + NIFS

      (Concept, S. von Goeler, RSI Vol. 61(1990) 3055)

      (TEXTOR, SXII + NTSC Camera, G. Fuchs et. al., EPS 23J(1999)757)

      (LHD, TEXTOR, SXII + Fast Camera, S. Ohdachi et. al., RSI vol.74(2003)2136)

    • PPPL (NSTX, SXII + Fast CCD on-chip memory, R. Feder, B. Stratton et. al.)

      Spatial structure of the MHD fluctuation has been measured with our camera system.  Interpretation of the images are needed now.

Hard X-ray(super thermal elc.)

Estimation of equilibrium

Fluctuation study

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Hardware of the camera system l.jpg
Hardware of the camera system

  • Fast video camera

    • KODAK:4540MX / Vision Research: Phantom

    • 30fps-4500fps(256x256)

    • ~20kHz(256x256 new)

  • Fluctuation measurement is realized from fast optical system with large diameter scintillator screen(10cm).

Coupling lens

Iron magnetic shied 2.5cm in thickness

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Sample data m 2 island l.jpg
Sample Data - m=2 island

ne

  • When m/n = 3/1 perturbation field is applied in TEXTOR tokamak, generation of the rotating m=2 magnetic island is observed.

Ip

I_DED

AC

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Poloidal tomography system l.jpg
Poloidal Tomography System

  • Many important physics are studied with these system having a good spatial resolutions.

  • Many detectors (~2 x m) surrounding plasma are needed for good reconstruction.

  • Due to the neutron flux onto the detectors, they can not be used in larger devices. In Large Helical Device, e.g. , such a configuration can not be realized by the large helical coil system.

  • Installation of tangentially viewing camera is much easier.

W7-AS

Stellarator

TCV

Tokamak

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Merits draw backs l.jpg
Merits / Draw-backs

  • Simpler hardware than those in poloidal tomography system.

  • We can make use of the human insight via pattern recognition of the structure of the fluctuations.

  • Dynamic range (14bit/~10bit) and framing rate (300kHz/~20kHz) of the present system is not as good as poloidal array system.

  • Difficulty in reconstruction.

  • Radiation profile at a poloidal cross section is needed when we want to compare with the theories.

  • With reconstructed images, we can study two dimensional effect;

    • e.g. magnetic island shape/size?

    • e.g. ST (Where does the reconnection take place?)

    • e.g. Ballooning-like nature of the MHD activities.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Fft for analysis for fluctuations l.jpg
FFT for analysis for fluctuations

  • Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used for two purposes in fluctuation study.

  • Estimate for spectrum shapes. (e.g. comparison with turbulence theory)

  • Extraction of coherent modes. (e.g. comparison with MHD instabilities.) For this purpose, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method has advantages over FFT method.

Fourier Spectrum

Obtained by FFT

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Singular value decomposition l.jpg
Singular Value Decomposition

A= U W Vt

Space structure(topos)

Time evolution(chronos)

  • Spatial and temporal components are obtained simultaneously.

  • Large few components can explain the characteristics of the fluctuations usually. (summary of the data)

Measure of the contributions

from each orthogonal functions

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Advantage of svd method l.jpg
Advantage of SVD method

Complicated data

are summarized by

selecting a proper

unit basis vector.

SVD is equivalent to the

method called

PCA(statistics)

EOF(meteorology)

POD(Fluid dynamics)

  • Topos (space structure) ui is unit basis vectors in n-dimensional system that maximizes the summation of the projection of the measured data Suiai. In this process we can make use of the similarities or correlations of the multi-channel data.

  • Chronos (time evolution) can be arbitrary orthogonal functions. It is useful when the frequency of the fluctuations is changing or when the events with step-function like waveform, while, in FFT, fixed-frequency trigonometric functions are used for the basis of the decomposition.

Data point:

Each trial of measurements

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Svd to 2d data extraction of fluc components l.jpg
SVD to 2D data/extraction of fluc. components

  • There are so many information in 2D moving pictures. However, it is difficult to retrieve information only by watching at the video data.

  • In multi-channel data, normal graph can help understanding.

  • SV decompose works as tool for digest information. They are also used after tomographic study in W7-AS/TCV after making reconstructions.

  • With SVD, sawtooth crash and m=1 precursors can be separated well.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


2 d tomography methods l.jpg
2D Tomography methods

  • It is better to make the full use of rich experience in 2D reconstruction in fusion plasma, since it worked well under difficult conditions.

  • Series expansion methods (Fourie-Bessel expansion, Cormack, .. )

    • shape of the flux surfaces are assumed

  • Matrix based methods (ill-posed problem; regularization is needed)

    • Radiation profile using arbitrary grids can be reconstructed; estimate the shape of the flux surfaces is also possible(e.g. W7-AS).

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Toroidal helical asymmetry l.jpg
Toroidal /Helical Asymmetry

TEXTOR(circular tokamak)

LHD

  • If we assume toroidal symmetry, information about the poloidal asymmetry is also lost from finite rotational transform.

  • In addition to tokamak, in Helical device, we need to assume rotation axis. Radial resolution is worse if we rotate geometrically rotate the flux surface.  not so useful

Vertically

elongated section

qa=4.5

Horizontally

elongated section

r

iota=5(l=10) geometry

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Constant radiation along field lines l.jpg
Constant radiation along field lines

Equivalent line of sight

  • It is not possible to reconstruct 3-dimensional structure from only one projection. If we assume symmetry, 3D reconstruction problem can be reduced to the 2D problem.

  • In order to analyze structure at the fluctuating MHD phenomena, constant radiation along magnetic field lines might be good.

  • We need to know the equilibrium magnetic field.

P2

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Sightlines on the lhd l.jpg
Sightlines on the LHD

  • Sightlines in the LHD is much complicated due to the shape of the plasma.

  • At the core, flux surface from the equilibrium code is not available.

  • Since shift of the magnetic axis is important for the line-tracing, we need to carefully select the most suitable flux surface for good inversion.

  • LHD case, almost whole plasma is covered by the sight lines.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Difficulty in reconstruction l.jpg
Difficulty in reconstruction

test image assuming poloidally symmetric profile

  • Equivalent line of sight covers whole plasma cross section.

  • Adding white noise is not serious problem.

  • In 2D tomography, careful adjustment is required for good reconstruction. Unfortunately, equivalent line of sight in 3D geometry is easily moved.

  • Determination of the equilibrium should be done using other diagnostics.

Magnetic Axis -5cm 0cm   +5cm

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Eigenfunctions in svd methods l.jpg
Eigenfunctions in SVD methods

  • Solutions are composed by the series of the images.

  • Higher components have a smaller structures. -> We can neglect higher component for the stable reconstruction.

Coefficient can be determined by correlation.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Reconstruction and number of terms l.jpg
Reconstruction and number of terms

Experiment

Test Data

  • Reconstruction of the test data and experimental data(TOPOS).

  • ~100 terms are optimal for reconstraction.

30

50

100

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Series expansion by fourie bessel l.jpg
Series expansion by Fourie-Bessel

  • Coefficient amk can be determined by least square fitting.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Each component and its reconstruction l.jpg
Each component and its reconstruction

  • From stationary component(B1) we determine the Shafranov-shift.

  • With obtained shift and the q-profile, equilibrium fields are composed m=2 structure having different phase can be seen in B2 and B3

m=2 structure

False Image

Or m=3?

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Cpu time of the decomposition l.jpg
CPU time of the decomposition

  • intel Fortran (Linux 2xXeon 1.8GHz).

  • SVD(Intel Math Kernel Library), 2QR(developed by Iwama Group)

  • Decomposition of needed eigen fuction only(200~300) is allowed in 2QR methods.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Truncated least square solution l.jpg
Truncated least square solution

Case (1)

  • Series expansions.

Case (2)

Case (3)

Case (4)

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Eigen functions for 2qr decomposition l.jpg
Eigen functions for 2QR decomposition

  • In this case, higher component are made of smaller patterns and can be cut off.

  • Contribution of higher modes are not so small; we will make use of 100~300 components.

SVD

2QR

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Reconstruction using 2qr decomp l.jpg
Reconstruction using 2QR decomp.

test image

Experimental

  • Reconstruction by different eigen functions.

  • Larger number of components are needed by 2QR method.

  • Quality of the reconstructed image is not as good as SVD methods. However, CPU time for the reconstruction is shorter.

  • There are false images at the outboard side.

Tangential

Images

n=100

n=200

n=400

n=500

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Fluctuation structures observed in lhd l.jpg
Fluctuation structures observed in LHD

1.2s

1.7s

  • Internal minor disruptions are observed in fairy low shear and peaked plasmas.

  • m=2 postcursor and m=3 pre/postcursor are observed.

Camera

m=3

SXArray

m=2

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


M 2 pre cursor case l.jpg
m=2 pre-cursor case

  • m=2 precursor. Strange shape is caused by the geometric effect.

m=2, r~0.7±0.1

3.5U

m=2, r~0.4±0.1

6.5U

m=2/n=2?

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


M 3 with post cursor l.jpg
m=3 (with post-cursor)

CL

  • St-like relaxation in LHD is fairy complicated phenomena. Slow evolution of the m=1 island(1) and the generation of m=3 islands can be seen.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Reconstruction by svd method in lhd l.jpg
Reconstruction by SVD method in LHD

CL

  • m=1 static island and m=3 rotating islands are reconstructed onto a poloidal plane (holizontally elongated section.)

  • We determine equilibrium surface using Te profile measured by Thomson scattering.

m=1?

m=3

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Summary of the reconstruction l.jpg
Summary of the reconstruction

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Summary l.jpg
Summary

  • Tangential imaging using SX radiation is a effective tool to detect moving structure. It is even useful for high m case; we have observed fluctuations having m=3 structure so far.

  • Tomographic reconstruction in 3D case is more difficult than in 2D case, since the line of sight can not be fixed; it depends on the equilibrium magnetic field.

  • When we estimate the equilibrium field well, we can make use of the techniques which is used in 2D tomography. If we can put several detectors, the estimation of the equilibrium can be better.

    Future plan

  • Codes based on the flux coordinate system to share code in different machines(TEXTOR, LHD, NSTX).

  • Make estimate of the error in the reconstruction processes.

Extraction of fluctuating component -> tomographic reconstruction

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Ded coils and poincar map l.jpg
DED coils and poincaré map

  • possible configuration m/n = 12/4, 6/2, 3/1

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Measuring area of lhd l.jpg
Measuring area of LHD

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Sx array and images l.jpg
SX array and images

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


M 2 islands and its reconstruction l.jpg
m=2 islands and its reconstruction

Pixel based reconstruction

Iwama et.al. Appl.Phys.Lett54(1989)502

ME method gives similar results.

  • From stationary component(B1) we determine the Shafranov-shift.

  • With obtained shift and the q-profile, equilibrium fields are composed.

  • C2 and C3 are reconstructed from B2 and B3 by fourie-bessel methods.

No eq. field is assumed

poloidally symmetric

Fourie-Bessel expansion

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei


Series expansion by svd fourie bessel l.jpg
Series expansion by SVD/Fourie-Bessel

  • Since the matrix is very large(e.g.2500x1024), it takes so long cpu time in non-linear optimization, e.g. ME method.

  • For matrix based method, we make use of Iwama’s method where, ∇E2 are minimized.

2005/07 CUP seminar at Hefei