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LIFE TRANSFORMING JOURNEY. By Jin Kuan Kok, Sew Kim Low Paper Presentation International Conference on Lifelong learning 14 Nov 2011 Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODLOGY : Narrative approach

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life transforming journey

LIFE TRANSFORMING JOURNEY

By

Jin Kuan Kok, Sew Kim Low

Paper Presentation

International Conference on Lifelong learning

14 Nov 2011

Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

slide2
INTRODUCTION
  • OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE REVIEW
  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  • RESEARCH METHODLOGY: Narrative approach
  • RESEARCH FINDINGS
  • STAGE ONE: REFLECTION & EVALUATION
  • STAGE TWO: OPPORTUNITY & DECISION MAKING
  • STAGE THREE: SUPPORT & OVERCOMING OBSTACLES
  • POSTPONEMENT & TEMPORARY EXIT
  • STAGE FOUR: ON-GOING GROWTH
  • DISCUSSION
  • CONCLUSION
introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • 1965, UNESCO began to advocate the extension of the education process throughout life.
  • 1972, UNESCO published “Learning TO BE”
  • Lifelong learning is process oriented.
  • Lifelong learning includes the informal and non-formal education.
  • Lifelong learning as a means of coping with challenges of a rapidly changing world.
human capital theory
Human Capital Theory
  • The current dominant theory of lifelong learning.
  • For the development of human capital, thus promote a healthy economy.
  • An investment for useful knowledge and developing skills.
  • It involves constant learning and upgrading.
other theories or models
Other Theories or Models
  • Maslow’s theory of needs: Human beings are motivated to satisfy their achievement and self-actualization needs.
  • Cross proposed a chain-or-response (COR) model: A self-directed, not a single act but result of a chain of responses.
  • It involves seven-stage process: self-evaluation, attitude, motivation, life transitions, opportunities & barriers, information & decision making.
objectives of the study
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  • Cross’s model: psychological oriented.
  • Ng (2006) incorporates other sociological factors.
  • Objectives of this study: to find out from the participants their lifelong learning journey that describe their motivation and social/cultural factors that contributed to their lifelong learning experience.
methodlogy
METHODLOGY
  • 12 research participants (aged 40 – 65)
  • 5 Primary school teachers; 4 Secondary school teachers; 1retiree; 2 University lecturer.
  • Narrative approach
  • In-depth interviews.
broad based questions
Broad based questions
  • Describe your experience of learning and after leaving school, have you attended any courses?
  • What difficulties did you face and how did you overcome them?
  • What is your view of lifelong learning?
research findings stage one reflection and evaluation
RESEARCH FINDINGSStage One: Reflection and Evaluation
  • Lifelong learning experience from a life reflection or life evaluation.
  • Dissatisfaction
  • Yearning for a change
  • Bored of day in and day out

“I compared my salary with a fresh graduate who just started teaching. I had this intention to upgrade myself”.

research findings stage one reflection and evaluation1
RESEARCH FINDINGSStage One: Reflection and Evaluation
  • “If I didn’t get the Biasiswa, I will pay for myself because this was my dream. I would regret it very much if I never did it.”
  • “I retired when I was 56, I have taught Physics for more than 30 years. So, when I finally retired, I asked myself, what is next?”
research findings stage two opportunity and decision making
RESEARCH FINDINGSStage Two: Opportunity and Decision Making
  • It shows how the participants were motivated from a critical life review.

- “The MOE wants to upgrade all the primary and secondary teachers to a degree holder. This year almost everyone who applied would get it as long as we are under the age of 46”.

research findings stage three support and overcoming obstacles
RESEARCH FINDINGSStage Three: Support and Overcoming Obstacles
  • Challenges included having to juggle their many responsibilities.
  • Long hours intensive courses.
  • Stressful to do assignments and examinations again.
  • Supports: spouse, family members, course mates.
family supports
Family Supports
  • If my own husband were not helping with the caring of children, I would definitely not able to do it” (50, F, primary school Home Science teacher)
struggles
Struggles
  • Why am I doing this?

“I felt guilty as I was not there for my children”. (A mother of two young children)

“My wife gave me lots of negativism. Stop doing all those study and examination. It is our children turn now and our time is over” (65 Male, a lecturer in a private university)

postponement and temporary exit
Postponement and temporary exit
  • Female participants waited for children to enter secondary schools.
  • Male participants postponed their studies due to heavy work load and responsibility for family.

“I waited till my children have gone to the university…now I decided to uproot my family from Alor Star to Kampar to pursue my dreams for a university education.

stage four on going growth
STAGE FOUR: ON-GOING GROWTH
  • Participants become more confident, daring to take risks.
  • Life has become more meaning and enriching.
role model
Role Model
  • Being inspired by others.
  • Now they wanted to become a role model of others.
discussion
DISCUSSION
  • Merriam & Caffarella (1999) stated that important life events serve as motivators.
  • This findings show that the participants were motivated by dissatisfactions which prompted them to do reflection. There was unfulfilled dreams.
supporting means
Supporting means
  • Pan (1997) held that effective and sustained lifelong learners need supporting means.
  • External: government’s initiatives, supporting system, framework, information availability.
  • Socio-cultural and contextual factors: family, friends, colleagues, course-mates, role models.
limitation of studies
Limitation of studies
  • Only reveals a handful of high status professional people engaged in formal education learning.
  • Many people outside the government sectors.
  • Non-formal and informal education underrepresented or underdeveloped.
  • More External framework supports from a macro and micro-social are needed.
model of lifelong learning

On-going Growth

System support & Information

Support & Overcome obstacle

Decision Making & Engaging in Lifelong learning

Postponement & Temporary Exit

Reflection & Evaluation

Dreams &

Life Events

Model of lifelong learning

Family

/Other

support