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DEATH, DYING & BEREAVEMENT. Psychologists put death in a lifespan perspective. … idealized image of how we cope. We are a death dying society - Why?. sense that we can control death. decreased exposure to death. control over the forces of nature. sense of self.

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Death dying bereavement l.jpg
DEATH, DYING & BEREAVEMENT

Psychologists put death in a lifespan perspective

… idealized image of how we cope

We are a death dying society - Why?

  • sense that we can control death

  • decreased exposure to death

  • control over the forces of nature

  • sense of self


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Developmental View of Death Anxiety

  • children - don’t comprehend finality, universality

  • adolescents - sense of immortality

  • adulthood - long way away, but anxiety es

  • middle-age - physical changes, unfulfilled

  • dreams, death of parents

  • late adulthood - think about it more, less fearful

  • must consider cohort effects:

  • old today - wars, poor health care

  • young today - distanced, media


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Concerns Regarding Death

  • high school students: losing loved one,

  • finality, punishment

  • middle-age: premature death, pain

  • older adults: process of dying, helpless,

  • undignified

Attitudes Toward Death

  • typical

  • neurotic

  • creative


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Kübler-Ross’ Stage Theory of Dying

(1) Denial - ‘Not me!’

(2) Anger - ‘Why me?’ ‘Why now?’

(3) Bargaining - ‘I’ll be good!’

(4) Depression - death is unavoidable

(5) Acceptance - peace, acceptance of fate

  • awakened interest in psychology of dying

but ... many criticisms


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Max. anxiety

Crisis

knowledge

of death

Integrated dying

Death

Birth

Terminal

Phase

Acute crisis

phase

Chronic living-dying phase

Pattison’s Phase Theory of Dying

  • different trajectories, depending on whether

  • death is certain or uncertain


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‘Good Death’

Choosing when we die: Euthanasia

  • active - intentional act to hasten death

  • passive - failure to act, withdrawal

  • e.g., living will, durable power of attorney

Choosing where we die: Hospices/Palliative Care

  • blend institutional care and home care

  • humanizes end-of-life experience for dying

  • as well as survivors

  • active and compassionate care for patient and

  • family


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Bereavement

  • grief - feelings associated with loss

  • mourning - grief behaviours, leave-taking rituals

Phases of grief and bereavement:

  • numbness

  • yearning

  • disorganisation

  • reorganisation/recovery


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Death of a Spouse

  • most common loss in the elderly

  • societal pressure to mourn for a period of time

  • women widowed more often

  • for men and women, loss of person who had

  • many roles

  • men and women deal w/ widowhood differently

  • survivor often loses role of caregiver for ill

  • spouse