Chemistry of Solutions. Chapter 7. Types of Solutions.
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Although there are many examples of solutions in different phases – gases in gases; gases, liquids, or solids in liquids; and liquids or solids in solids – the most frequent situation in chemistry is working with something dissolved in a liquid.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture – i.e., no separation of solute and solvent, concentration the same everywhere.
Polar solvents like to dissolve polar or ionic solutes – salt in water, acetic acid in water, methanol in water, acetic acid in methanol
Nonpolar solvents like to dissolve nonpolar solutes – toluene in hexane, hexane in carbon tetrachloride
Note that surfactants work by having a nonpolar end that is attracted to nonpolar grease and an opposite polar end attracted to water to carry the grease away. Also a model for cell walls (lipid chemistry).
Not every solution system is completely miscible. It is possible to saturate a solution. A saturated solution has the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a solvent at a given temperature. We see this all the time with the solubility of, for example, sugar in water.
Solubility usually increases with temperature. Hence, more sugar dissolves in hot tea than in iced tea. This is because most solution processes are endothermic – they absorb heat to make them go.
At 20 deg C, 34 g KCl will dissolve in 100 g water
At 50 deg C, 43 g KCl will dissolve in 100 g water
A solution containing 80. g of KCl in 200. g of water at 50 deg C is cooled to 20 deg C. How many grams of KCl remain in solution at 20 deg C? How many grams of KCl crystallized from solution after cooling?