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Police and the Community How Policing Can Reduce Feelings of Insecurity Authors Drs. Karin Lasthuizen, Free University, Amsterdam Drs. Ben van Eeuwijk, Police Force Gooi & Vechtstreek, Hilversum Professor Dr. Leo Huberts, Free University, Amsterdam
Police and the Community Our Presentation: - The NetherlandsAnd Its Police - Our research - Implications for Policing Strategy
Police and the Community The Netherlands And Its Police
The Research Police and the Community Output oriented policing police action reduction in crime reduction of feelings of insecurity
The Research Police and the Community Research: - What do we know already? Literaturestudy - A theoretical model - An operationalised model to measure with quantitative analysis - Outcome - Conclusions
The Research The Model Police and the Community Police-Acting, - - Crime feelings of + insecurity + -- the Neighborhood
The Research Conclusions Police and the Community Police Acting does contribute to reduction feelings of insecurity. The question how is to be split into two categories.
The Research Conclusions Police and the Community 1. Occurrences take place within the personal residence area, allowing the public to be personally confronted with it. The public expects the police to provide protection, react to the problems do their best and deal with matters efficiently (‘in the spirit of the neighborhood’). Police acting is a dissatisfier. If they do what the public expects, then in normal circumstances this is no reason to feel any safer. However if they do not live up to expectations, then this is a reason to feel less safe. This creates the perception that you cannot rely on the police when you need them.
The Research Conclusions Police and the Community 2. Occurrences take place outside the personal residence area therefore the public are almost never personally confronted with the problem. Such occurrences are considered as a potential danger and a collective threat for the community and they evoke feelings of unrest among the public. In this case, the public demand that the police undertake harsh measures against the criminals who cause these occurrences. Police acting is a satisfier. The more the police live up to the expectations (tough approach), the more the actions of the police will reduce the feelings of insecurity. The more the police fail to live up to the expectations, the more the (non-) performance of the police will contribute to the increase of the feelings of insecurity.
The Research Conclusions Police and the Community Significance of the neighborhood as a source of safety and non-safety, regardless of whether this relates to the origins or occurrence of crime or the feelings of insecurity of the public. The social quality of the neighborhood is an important action point for the safety policy.
The Research Conclusions Police and the Community Role of the media. It was discovered that one single incidence of violence, which receives extensive media coverage, can be enough to influence the feelings of insecurity of the public. Also the adoption of the police’s media policy in the research holds prospects. The Zeeland chiefs of police opted for image management in order to consciously build up a good relationship with the press and to create ‘positive press moments’
Implications for Policing Strategy Police and the Community Paradigm change: From output oriented policing To causal oriented policing Vision on safety: Safety in the community results from a multiplicity of (f)actors whereby none of these (f)actors can or should claim the primate.
Implications for Policing Strategy Police and the Community • Policing: • Curiosity and exploration of how the local community “organizes” (non)safety • Organizing activities in a way communication with all actors can take place • Fulfil our own responsibilities in society (the blue knights) using risk-management for decisionmaking.
Implications for Policing Strategy Police and the Community 4. Scan, Analyse, Identify and Define local problems. Plan, Do, Check (so measure!) and (Re)Act. 5. Use all the information you can get. Combine analysis of police registrations, quantitative analysis of surveys and the information police-officers have sensed on the street and neighborhoodmeetings.
Implications for Policing Strategy Police and the Community 6. Define what police can do and what others need to contribute, Safety policy is more than Police policy 7. Make a police media policy. When citizens trust the police in the sense that they can rely on them, when they need them, then you are safe and you are living in a Just World.
Implications for Policing Strategy Police and the Community Thank you for your attention