Mobile IP Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4) Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) MIP Extensions: FMIP & HMIP Proxy MIP (PMIP)
Mobile IP and its Variants • Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4) • MIPv4 • Low-Latency Handover for MIPv4 (FMIPv4) • Regional Registration for MIPv4 (HMIPv4) • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) • MIPv6 • Fast Handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6) • Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6)
IETF RFCs • MIP • MIPv4: RFC 3344 (2002) • MIPv6: RFC 3775 (2004) • FMIP (Fast Handover for MIP • FMIPv6: RFC 4068 (2005) • Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 • FMIPv4: RFC 4881 (2007) • Low-Latency Handoffs in Mobile IPv4 • HMIP (Hierarchical MIP) • HMIPv6: RFC 4140 (2005) • Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 • HMIPv4: RFC 4857 (2007) • Mobile IPv4 Regional Registration
MIPv4: Overview • MIPv4 Nodes • MN (Mobile Node): Host • CN (Correspondent Node): Host • HA (Home Agent): Router • FA (Foreign Agent): Router • MIPv4 Address • HoA (Home Address): MN • CoA (Care-of-Address): FA
Note: The home address is permanent; the care-of address changes as the mobile host moves from one network to another.
MIPv4 Agents • Home Agent (HA) & Foreign Agent (FA)
Protocols Operation • Agent Discovery • Registration • Data Transfer
MIPv4: Control Operations • Agent Discovery • MN FA (CoA) • ICMP Agent Solicitation & Advertisement • Registration to HA (via FA) • MN FA HA • Over UDP (destination port 434) • Data Tunneling • CN => HA (HoA) => FA (CoA) => MN • IP-in-IP Tunneling, ..
Agent advertisement • MIP does not use a new packet type for agent advertisement; • it uses the router advertisement packet of ICMP, and • appends an agent advertisement message.
Agent Solicitation Mobile IP does not use a new packet type for agent solicitation; it uses the router solicitation packet of ICMP.
Note: A registration request or reply is sent by UDP using the well-known port 434.
Key Objective of MIP The movement of the mobile host is transparent to the rest of the Internet.
Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) • MIPv6 = MIPv4 + IPv6 • Major Differences from MIPv4 • FA in MN • No FA for MIPv6 • CoA: IP address of MN • By DHCPv6 or IPv6 Stateless Auto-Configuration • Route Optimization • To solve the “Triangular Routing” Problem • Provided by default • MN CN
MIPv6: Binding Update • Binding Update to HA • Using IPSEC: MN and HA have a security association • AH (Authentication Header) • ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) • Binding Update to CN • Return Routability (RR) procedure • For Security • Binding Update (BU) procedure • Route Optimization
MIPv6: Changes to IPv6 • New IPv6 Protocol (Header) • Mobility Header: a new IPv6 extension header • To carry MIPv6 Binding Update messages • How is in the MIPv4 ? • New Option in Destination Option Header • Home Address Option • New Type in Routing Header • Type 2 Routing Header • New ICMP Messages • ICMP HA Address Discovery Request/Reply • ICMP Mobile Prefix Solicitation/ Advertisement
MIPv6: Mobility Header • A New Extension Header of IPv6 • Messages for Return Routability • Home Test Init Message • Care-of Test Init Message • Home Test Message • Care-of Test Message • Messages for Binding Update • Binding Update Message • Binding Acknowledgement Message • Binding Error Message • Binding Refresh Request Message
MIP Extensions • Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4) • Low-Latency Handover for MIPv4 (FMIPv4) • Regional Registration for MIPv4 (HMIPv4) • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) • Fast Handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6) • Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6)
FMIPv6: Fast Handover for MIPv6 CN PAR NAR signaling signaling MN
FMIPv6: Operations • Handover Initiation • L2 Triggers, RtSolPr, PrRtAdv • Between MN and AR • Tunnel Establishment • HI (Handover Initiate) and HACK • Between PAR and NAR • Packet Forwarding • PAR => NAR (data buffering at NAR) • FBU, FBack • NAR => MN: • FNA (Fast NA)
HMIPv6: Overview • Motivations • Localized (Regional) Mobility Management • Hierarchical • MIP: MN HA • HMIP: MN MAP HA • MAP: Mobility Anchor Point • IP Address (CoA) • RCoA (Regional CoA): in the MAP region • LCoA (On-Link CoA): in the AR region
HMIPv6: Architecture HA CN MAP RCoA AR2 AR1 LCoA_2 LCoA_1 Movement MN
HMIPv6: Operations • MN • When entering an AR region in the MAP domain, • it gets LCoA (AR region) and RCoA (MAP region) • RCoA does not change in the MAP domain • Local Binding Update (LBU) to MAP • Bind LCoA & RCoA to MAP • MAP (Acting as a local HA) • Only the RCoA need to be registered with CN/HA • Relay all packets between MN and HA/CN
HMIPv6: MAP Tunnel (MAP MN) HA CN MAP AR2 AR1 MN Outer header Inner header MAP RCoA CN Home Addr LCoA
Proxy MIPv6 (PMIPv6) “Network-based”Localized Mobility Management
Why Network-based? • Host-based MIPv4/v6 has not been yet deployed that much. • Why host-based MIP is not deployed yet? • Too heavy specification for a small terminal • RFC 3344 (MIPv4): 99 pages • RFC 3775 (MIPv6): 165 pages • Battery problem • Waste of air resource • No Stable MIPv4/v6 stack executed in Microsoft Windows OS
PMIPv6 • IETF NETLMM WG • Internet Draft • “Proxy Mobile IPv6,” • draft-ietf-netlmm-proxymip6-00.txt (2007) • GOAL • This protocol is for providing mobility support to any IPv6 host within a restricted and topologically localized portion of the network and without requiring the host to participate in any mobility related signaling.
Technical Background • Host-based vs. Network-based Mobility HA HA Route Update Route Update AR AR Movement Movement Network-based Mobility Host-based Mobility
Proxy MIPv6 Overview LMA: Localized Mobility AgentMAG: Mobile Access Gateway IP Tunnel A IPinIP tunnel LMA and MAG. LMA Home NetworkMN’s Home Network (Topological Anchor Point) MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP) CAFE:1:/64 MAG1 Host A LMA Address (LMAA) That will be the tunnel entry-point. LMM (Localized Mobility Management)Domain MAG2 MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP) CAFE:2:/64 Proxy Binding Update (PBU) Control message sent out by MAG to LMA to register its correct location Host B MN Home Address (MN-HoA) MN continues to use it as long as it roams within a same domain Proxy Care of Address (Proxy-CoA) The address of MAG. That will be the tunnel end-point.
Proxy MIPv6 Overview • No host stack change for IP mobility • Avoiding tunneling overhead over the air • Re-use of Mobile IPv6 • PMIPv6 is based on Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775] • Only supports Per-MN-Prefix model • Unique home network prefix assigned for each MN. • The prefix follows the MN.
Proxy MIPv6 Overview • Overall Procedures • MN moves and attaches to an access router • After authentication, MAG (access router) identifies MN • MAG obtains MN’s profile containing the Home Address ..etc • MAG sends the Proxy Binding Update to LMA on behalf of MN • MAG receives the Proxy Binding Ack. from LMA • MAG sends Router Advertisements containing MN’s home network prefix • Stateless Case: MN will still configure (or maintain) the same as its home address. • Stateful Case: the network will ensure that it always gets its home address.
Proxy MIPv6 Overview In case that profile store does not have MN Home Prefix MAG emulates the MN’s home link Tunnel Setup This can be omitted when stateless configuration is used.
Proxy MIPv6 • Proxy Registration • LMA needs to understand the Proxy Registration. Proxy Binding Update Proxy Binding Acknowledgement
Proxy MIPv6 • Tunnel Management • LMA-MAG tunnel is a shared tunnel among many MNs. • 1:1 relation m:1 relation • One tunnel is associated to multiple MNs’ Binding Caches. • Life-time of a tunnel should not be dependent on the life time of any single BCE. • LMA’s Prefix-based Routing • LMA will add prefix routes to MN’s home network prefix over the tunnel.
Proxy MIPv6 • MAG Operation • It emulates the home link for eachMN. • After the access authentication, MAG will obtain MN’s profile which contains: • MN’s home address • MN’s home network prefix • LMA address ..etc. • It establishes a IPv6/IPv6 tunnel with the LMA. • All the packets from MN are reverse tunneled to its LMA • All the packets from the tunnel are routed to MN. • Router Advertisement should be UNICASTed to an MN • It will contain MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP)
Proxy MIPv6 • MN Operation • Any MN is just a IPv6 host with its protocol operation consistent with the base IPv6 specification. • All aspects of Neighbor Discovery Protocol will not change. • When MN attaches to a new AR, it receives a Router Advertisement message from the AR with its home prefix. • Throughout the PMIP domain, MN using DHCP procedure or in stateless address configuration mode, will obtain the same home address.
Proxy MIPv6 • Data Transport • LMA-MAG Tunneling/Reverse Tunneling MAG CN MN LMA MN sends a packet to CN MAG forwards to LMA LMA sends to CN CN sends packet to MN LMA forwards to MAG MAG sends to MN IPv6 header (src=LMA_ADDR, dst=MAG_ADDR) IPv6 header (src=CN_ADDR, dst=MN_ADDR) Paylaod IPv6 header (src=MAG_ADDR, dst=LMA_ADDR) IPv6 header (src=MN_ADDR, dst=CN_ADDR) Payload