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Cell Project. by Linda Xie and Jessica Pipitone Biology 6th period. background from. picture from. Basic Organization of Cells. text from. The prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus. The eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus. Basic Organization of Cells. text from.

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slide1
Cell Project

by Linda Xie and Jessica PipitoneBiology 6th period

background from

picture from

slide2
Basic Organization of Cells

textfrom

The prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus.

The eukaryotic cell contains a nucleus.

slide3
Basic Organization of Cells

textfrom

All biological membranes, including plasma membranes and all organelle membranes, contain lipids and proteins.

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Basic Organization of Cells

text and picturefrom

        • Elements of cell
        • sorted by function
  • Growth
  • The nucleus The ribosomes The endoplasmic reticulum The Golgi apparatus The vacuoles The centrioles
  • Moving
  • The centriole The cytoskeleton Flagella
slide5
Basic Organization of Cells

textfrom

Getting rid of bad things in the cell

The membrane Some vacuoles The mitochondrion The chloroplastThe cytoplasm

Multiplying

The nucleusThe centriole The membrane

different types of cells
Different Types of Cells

There are two categories of cells:

Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes

prokaryotes
Prokaryotes

Bacteria

Prokaryotes are cells, but they don’t have a nucleus. They still have DNA though, its just bunched up in the middle of the cell. Bacteria is a prokaryotic cell.

Paramecium

eukaryotes
Eukaryotes

Red Blood Cells

Eukaryotes have a nucleus which is the only difference between them and a prokaryote. Plant, animal, and fungi cells are all eukaryotes.

Nerve cells

plant and animal cells
Plant and Animal cells

The main types of eukaryotes are plant and animal cells. Plant cells are in plants and animal cells are found in all animals (pretty self explanatory). Both have the same function for each living thing: to keep it alive. The only difference is on the inside. Plant cells have plastids, a vacuole, and a cell wall. Animal cells have centrioles and lysosomes that plant cells don’t have.

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Cell Nucleus

The cell nucleus is found only in eukaryotic cells. Usually it is round and the largest part of the cell. It stores the DNA which stores genetic information of the cell. The nucleus is made up of three main parts, the nucleolus, the nuclear envelope, and the chromatin.

text from

slide13
Analogy of Cell Nucleus

If the cell was your body, then ...

the cell nucleus would function as your brain, which sends information out to the rest of your body (ribosomes) in order to create important things (proteins) to keep you alive and healthy.

slide14
Cell Nucleus

The Nuclear Envelope

Surrounding the nucleus is a thin membrane punctured with holes called nuclear pores that allow specific communication in and out of the nucleus almost like a security guard.

slide15
Cell Wall

Cell walls maintain the cell’s shape, the direction of growth, and provide structural support. Not all living things have cell walls. Plant cells have a lot of chemicals added into their cell walls such as cellulose and lignin (for plant structure). The cell wall is located outside the plasma membrane.

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Cell Wall

Structure - non-living and composed of cellulose - cellulose fibrils created in alternating layers for strength - has pits that make it penetrable

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mitochondria
Mitochondria

In the cell mitochondria are the main power generators. They convert oxygen and nutrients into energy for the cell to perform everyday functions.

inside a mitochondria
Inside a Mitochondria

Mitochondria are shaped like a bean and have two membranes. The inner membrane is where most of the energy is made.

how mitochondria make energy
How Mitochondria Make Energy

“There's a slow fire in the mitochondria that takes the oxygen and nutrients and burns it all up to create energy," Teitelbaum says. The mitochondria's inner walls are coated with energy-making chemical reactors that take the fuel and pull it apart. Resulting in energy (ATP). text from.

ATP

vacuoles
Vacuoles

Vacuoles are like sacks that hold water, salt, protein, and carbohydrates in a cell. They’re in all plant cells and some animal cells have small vacuoles.

what else vacuoles do
What Else Vacuoles Do

Some small vacuoles are involved in transporting substances in the cell, they’re called vesicles. Flowers are their own colors because the liquid in the vacuole is that color. Also, lemons taste sour because the liquid in the vacuole is sour. Same goes for sweet plants.

how vacuoles help keep plant structure
How vacuoles help keep plant structure

When you water a plant the water is taken up by the plant cells vacuoles. When the vacuoles are full it presses against the cell wall and the plant can then stand up straight. That’s why a plant that hasn’t been watered is wilted. text from

endoplasmic rectum er
Endoplasmic Rectum (ER)

The endoplasmic rectum is where lipids and other nutrients are made and modified. Its also involved in transporting material through the cell either to parts that need it or to the Golgi apparatus. There are two different sections (smooth and rough) of the endoplasmic reticulum.

rough endoplasmic reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

The only reason this section is called “rough” is that there are Ribosomes covering the whole surface. These Ribosomes put the proteins they’ve made into the endoplasmic reticulum. Inside the protein is chemically modified.

Ribosomes

on the

Endoplasmic

Reticulum

smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Smooth ER

Rough ER

This section of the endoplasmic reticulum has nothing on the surface so its called “smooth.” Its in charge of packaging protein for transportation through the cell . Its also in charge of combining lipids and releasing calcium.

golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus

After the proteins leave the endoplasmic reticulum they go to the Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex. Here carbohydrates are connected to the lipids and proteins from the ER then sent off the its final destination.

what the golgi complex does
What the Golgi Complex Does

Has five to eight, membrane-covered sacs called cisternae that look like a stack of deflated balloons. Inside the Golgi complex modifies proteins and lipids that have been built in the ER and prepares them for shipping outside of the cell or to other locations in the cell.

how protein gets to and from the golgi complex
How Protein gets to and from the Golgi Complex

There are little vesicles that can attach and detach to the Golgi complex. They go to the ER, attach themselves, take in the proteins and lipids ready to be transported, then go back to the Golgi complex. There it fuses to the Golgi membrane and drops off the “goods” it has. Inside the Golgi complex acts like a factory and tweaks the proteins to fit where they will be sent to. Like a post office putting things in special boxes to fit where its going and what it is. Then another vesicle picks it up and will send it to either another part of the cell or to the outside of the cell for use elsewhere.

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ribosomes
Ribosomes

Protein is what all cells are made out of; many amino acids make up one protein. So Ribosomes are very important to cells since they take in the amino acids and put them together to make, the basic building blocks of all cells, proteins. Ribosomes are the smallest part of a cell, but there are the most of them.

the structure of a ribosome
The Structure of a Ribosome

Ribosomes have no membrane and disassembled into two subunits when not actively making protein. About 40 percent of a ribosome is protein and the other 60 percent is RNA.

RNA gives the instructions for building proteins and brings the amino acids to the ribosome

how ribosomes do it
How Ribosomes Do It

The ribosome reads the tRNA one code at a time, adding protein building blocks one by one. The building blocks are made up of amino acids attached to transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. For every code in the mRNA, there is another tRNA molecule that fits it exactly. As the ribosome moves along the mRNA, it selects the correct tRNA molecules. Each tRNA brings with it the correct amino acid, which the ribosome then adds to the growing protein, releasing the tRNA at the same time.

REALLY COOL

ribosome

Movie

(It’s a must see)

cytoplasm
Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm is the gelatin-like fluid inside the cell. It acts as a cushion for all the different parts so that they don’t bump into and break each other. Cytoplasm consists of mainly water, but some salt and other organic molecules.

analogy of cytoplasm
Analogy of Cytoplasm

If cytoplasm was a stew then....

all the other parts of the cell (mitochondria, vacuoles, Ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, etc.) would be the carrots, broth, meat, beans, and other ingredients in the stew.

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Lysosomes

Lysosomes are produced in the Golgi apparatus. They find and break down foreign invaders (such as bacteria) so they might be able to be used again. Or if they find the invader to be really harmful, then they will destroy it and remove it from the cell.

text and picturesfrom

slide35
Analogy of Lysosomes

Lysosomes are almost like the entire police force keeping the city safe and in order. If they find someone extremely (possibly bacteria), they will put that person in jail (removing it from the cell).

slide36
Plasma Membrane

The plasma membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of a cell. It is a little penetrable so some things cross easier than others.

Even with an electron microscope you can't actually see the detailed structure of a plasma membrane because it's too thin.

textfrom

slide37
Plastids

Plastids only are in plant cells and photosynthetic organisms. They are in the cytoplasm and have a double membrane surrounding them. The number of plastids in a cell varies depending on the environmental conditions and how the plant adjusts to them and the type of species the plant is.

textfrom

slide38
Plastids

Plastids store molecules like pigments (which give fruits and vegetables an orange or red color when they are ripe). They also store photosynthetic products taken during the summer and are stored for the winter and spring. They are very important for the storage of starch. Foods with a lot of starch contain many plastids. Potatoes have a lot of plastids.

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Potato plastids

slide39
Centrioles

Centrioles are found in most animal cells and come in pairs. They are made of short microtubules that are arranged like a barrel. The two centrioles are positioned at right angles. During cell division, each centriole moves to the opposite sides of the cell and may function in cell division. They are found at the base of cilia and flagella (both are used for cellular motion) .

textfrom

animal and plant cells
Animal

Cell membrane

Nucleus

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes

Vacuoles (small or none)

Mitochondria

Cytoskeleton

Plant

Cell membrane

Cell wall

Nucleus

Ribosomes

Endoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

Vacuoles

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Cytoskeleton

Animal and Plant Cells

Things in bold are things that the cell has that other doesn’t

slide42
You’re going to take a quiz!

What are the different categories of cells?

A: eukaryote and plant

B: eukaryote and prokaryote

C: plant and animal

D: prokaryote and animal

you re going to take a quiz
You’re going to take a quiz!

What are the different categories of cells?

A: eukaryote and plant

B: eukaryote and prokaryote

C: plant and animal

D: prokaryote and animal

slide44
You’re going to take a quiz!

What type of cell doesn’t have a nucleus?

A: prokaryote

B: animal

C: eukaryote

D: plant

you re going to take a quiz45
You’re going to take a quiz!

What type of cell doesn’t have a nucleus?

A: prokaryote

B: animal

C: eukaryote

D: plant

slide46
You’re going to take a quiz!

What is the basic building block of all cells?

A: amino acids

B: water

C: oxygen

D: protein

you re going to take a quiz47
You’re going to take a quiz!

What is the basic building block of all cells?

A: amino acids

B: water

C: oxygen

D: protein

slide48
You’re going to take a quiz!

What does the nuclear envelope do?

A: allows communication in and out

B: gets rid of unwanted things in the cell

C: protects the cell from disease

D: stores the important information

you re going to take a quiz49
You’re going to take a quiz!

What does the nuclear envelope do?

A: allows communication in and out

B: gets rid of unwanted things in the cell

C: protects the cell from disease

D: stores the important information

slide50
You’re going to take a quiz!

How are the golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum related?

A: they’re the same thing

B: they eat each other

C: they don’t like each other

D: none of the above

you re going to take a quiz51
You’re going to take a quiz!

How are the golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum related?

A: they’re the same thing

B: they eat each other

C: they don’t like each other

D: none of the above

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