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Lecture 4:. V HF O mnidirectional R ange (VOR). Learning Outcomes. At the end of this lecture, the student should be able to: Explain the basic workings of VOR Describe the purpose of VOR Explain advantages and disadvantages of VOR. V HF O mni-directional R ange. Introduction.

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V hf o mnidirectional r ange vor

Lecture 4:

VHF OmnidirectionalRange (VOR)

Learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

  • At the end of this lecture, the student should be able to:

    • Explain the basic workings of VOR

    • Describe the purpose of VOR

    • Explain advantages and disadvantages of VOR

VHF Omni-directional Range


  • VOR, short for VHFOmni-directional Range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft.

  • VOR provide MAGNETIC BEARING information to and from the station.

  • “Omni-” means all and an Omni-directional range means VOR station transmits signal in all directions.

  • VOR function as marking for the BEGINNING, CENTER-LINE andthe END of airways.

  • In short word, VOR guide an aircraft from point A to point B, from point B to point C.

Vor equipment
VOR Equipment

VOR antenna at vertical

tail of aircraft

VOR aircraft equipment

-VOR antenna at

vertical tail of aircraft

-VOR receiver & indicator

inside cockpit

VOR Ground Station (antenna)

Vor ground antenna
VOR Ground Antenna

Stationary Antennas

Rotating Antennas

  • VOR station for broadcast the signal

Vor ground antenna1
VOR ground antenna

  • The VOR ground antenna is oriented to magnetic north.

  • Consists of :

    • Single Stationary Antenna at the centre

    • Rotating antennas

  • It produces 360° radials/tracks at 1° spacing.

  • These 360 bearings are known as RADIALS

  • VOR ground installations are strategically located along air routes and airport to ensure continuity of guidance.



Magnetic North









How vor works
How VOR works

  • VOR receiver in the cockpit is tuning to the specific frequencies assigned for that VOR ‘s airport.

  • It is VHF frequency which is between 108-117.95 MHz.

  • After entering the frequency, the volume control should be turned up in order to confirm that the three letter identification code (Morse Code) is correct.

    • For example, KLIA airport has a VOR known as VKL-Victor Kilo Lima

  • The VOR station on the ground transmits two signals at the same time; one signal is constant in all directions, while the other signal is rotated about a point.

  • One from stationary antenna, while the other from rotating antenna.

How vor works1
How VOR works

  • When aircraft receives these two signals, an aircraft VOR receiver electronically measures the phase angle different between these two signals.

  • This phase angle different is translated as the MAGNETIC BEARINGwhich tell the pilot the aircraft angle direction to the VOR station.

  • This bearing angle also known as RADIALS.

Advantages of vor
Advantages of VOR

  • More accurate & precise flying:

    • The accuracy of course alignment of the VOR is excellent, being generally plus or minus 1 degree.

  • Reliable:

    • Can be used day and night.

  • Multiple number of route :

    • Provide multiple number of route ‘towards’ or away from each station.

    • These routes are like invisible highways , which the pilot can navigate to @ away from any location.

Dis advantages of vor
Disadvantages of VOR

  • Signal s can not be received at low altitudes (below 1000ft)

  • VORs are sensitive to the interference of terrain. The nearest mountains and buildings cause the VOR bearings to be stopped and interrupted.

  • Other disadvantages is VOR equipments are costly to maintain.

Question bank
Question Bank

  • VHF Omni directional range (VOR) is the primary navigational aid used by civil aviation for en-route navigation.

  • List out VOR equipments (2M)

  • Explain how VOR works (8M)


What are the advantages of VOR (6M)

What are the disadvantages of VOR (6M)