OVERVIEW • Distinguish between servers and workstations. • Choose servers for Windows NT and Netware. • Maintain and troubleshoot servers.
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SERVERS AND WORKSTATIONS • Servers incorporate several features not found in workstations. • Servers serve up data/services to a number of users.
Features of servers • Server processors • Bus capabilities • RAM • Disk subsystems
Features of servers • Disk topologies: RAID • I2O • Server state monitoring • Hot-swap components
Server processors Xeon processors are: • Optimized for server-type duties. • More suited to a multiprocessor system.
Server processors Intel Clones: • AMD K6 series of processors • DEC Alpha • HP PA-RISC • PowerPC
Bus capabilities • Data on the server is moved in lots. • A bus is the backbone for data transfer. • Network cards, processors, and system’s memory are connected to the bus. • The bus can handle five times more data than other system components.
RAM Types: • Nonparity • Parity • Error Checking and Correcting (ECC)
RAM Nonparity: • Eliminates the parity bit. • Is unable to detect memory error. • Is a cost-cutting technique.
RAM Parity: • Uses an extra bit for every byte to store a checksum of the byte’s contents. • Stops the system and reports an error if the checksum does not match when memory is read. The system is unable to correct errors.
RAM Error Checking and Correcting (ECC): • Detects up to two bits of errors. • Corrects one bit of error automatically. • Provides added protection.
Disk subsystems • Is the slowest component. • Is most likely to be a bottleneck. • A reliable disk configuration is of great importance.
Disk Topologies: RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks: • Uses many disks to do the work of one. • Spreads a server’s data across many disks.
Disk Topologies: RAID • Disks can independently find data and send it to be assembled. • Performance increases as you add more disks. • The chance of disk failure increases as data is spread across disks.
I2O Intelligent I/O: • Moves I/O processing from the computer’s processor to the disk controller. • Relieves some of the computer’s central processor load.
Server state monitoring Higher-end servers monitor: • Proper fan operation • System voltage • Memory errors • In-case temperature • Operating system hangs • Computer case opening
Hot-swap components • Can be replaced while the system operates. • Are limited to disks, power supplies, and fans running in a redundant configuration.
CHOOSE SERVERS FOR WINDOWS NT AND NETWARE • Defining needs • Selecting servers • Purchasing the system • Installing servers
Defining needs Considerations: • What is the life of the server? • What job will the server perform? • How many users will the server support? • What are the needs of users?
Defining needs Considerations: • How reliable must the server be? • Will you use clustering for the server? • How safe must data on the server be?
Defining needs Considerations: • What are your backup plans? • How do you plan to back up the server? • How could demands on the server change? • Will the server work with existing hardware?
Selecting the server • Compatibility is the basic prerequisite. • The server should meet Novell’s/Microsoft’s hardware requirements.
Selecting the server The server brand should have: • An established service organization. • High-quality support. • Technical support databases. • In-house engineering.
Installing servers • Test server hardware. • Read server documentation. • Use automated tools provided by the manufacturer. • Install an NOS.
Installing servers • Run potential NLMs, NT services and processes, or UNIX/Linux daemons together during testing. • Check for updates provided before installation.
MAINTAIN AND TROUBLESHOOT SERVERS • Reduce failures • Resolve failures
Reduce failures • Use reliable, tested servers and components. • Reduce the number of server tasks (when possible). • View the server’s error logs.
Reduce failures • Install management software. • Install special software that supports hot-swap in RAID. • Shut down/restart the server periodically.
Resolve failures • Take backups/test restores before a server goes into production. • Preserve purchase data. • Retain configuration details.
Resolve failures • List software needed to rebuild the server. • Maintain contact information for service on the server. • Document configuration changes and error messages. • Document anything special about the server/disk drive configuration.
SUMMARY Distinguish between a server and a workstation: • Server processors • Bus capabilities • RAM • Disk subsystems • Disk Topologies: RAID • I2O • Server state monitoring • Hot-swap components
Summary Choose servers for Windows NT and Netware: • Defining needs • Selecting the server • Purchasing the system • Installing servers
Summary Maintain and troubleshoot servers: • Reduce failures • Resolve failures