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Lesson 12 – NETWORK SERVERS PowerPoint Presentation
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Lesson 12 – NETWORK SERVERS

Lesson 12 – NETWORK SERVERS

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Lesson 12 – NETWORK SERVERS

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  1. Lesson 12 – NETWORK SERVERS

  2. OVERVIEW • Distinguish between servers and workstations. • Choose servers for Windows NT and Netware. • Maintain and troubleshoot servers.

  3. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SERVERS AND WORKSTATIONS • Servers incorporate several features not found in workstations. • Servers serve up data/services to a number of users.

  4. Features of servers • Server processors • Bus capabilities • RAM • Disk subsystems

  5. Features of servers • Disk topologies: RAID • I2O • Server state monitoring • Hot-swap components

  6. Server processors Xeon processors are: • Optimized for server-type duties. • More suited to a multiprocessor system.

  7. Server processors Intel Clones: • AMD K6 series of processors • DEC Alpha • HP PA-RISC • PowerPC

  8. Bus capabilities • Data on the server is moved in lots. • A bus is the backbone for data transfer. • Network cards, processors, and system’s memory are connected to the bus. • The bus can handle five times more data than other system components.

  9. RAM Types: • Nonparity • Parity • Error Checking and Correcting (ECC)

  10. RAM Nonparity: • Eliminates the parity bit. • Is unable to detect memory error. • Is a cost-cutting technique.

  11. RAM Parity: • Uses an extra bit for every byte to store a checksum of the byte’s contents. • Stops the system and reports an error if the checksum does not match when memory is read. The system is unable to correct errors.

  12. RAM Error Checking and Correcting (ECC): • Detects up to two bits of errors. • Corrects one bit of error automatically. • Provides added protection.

  13. Disk subsystems • Is the slowest component. • Is most likely to be a bottleneck. • A reliable disk configuration is of great importance.

  14. Disk Topologies: RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks: • Uses many disks to do the work of one. • Spreads a server’s data across many disks.

  15. Disk Topologies: RAID • Disks can independently find data and send it to be assembled. • Performance increases as you add more disks. • The chance of disk failure increases as data is spread across disks.

  16. I2O Intelligent I/O: • Moves I/O processing from the computer’s processor to the disk controller. • Relieves some of the computer’s central processor load.

  17. Server state monitoring Higher-end servers monitor: • Proper fan operation • System voltage • Memory errors • In-case temperature • Operating system hangs • Computer case opening

  18. Hot-swap components • Can be replaced while the system operates. • Are limited to disks, power supplies, and fans running in a redundant configuration.

  19. CHOOSE SERVERS FOR WINDOWS NT AND NETWARE • Defining needs • Selecting servers • Purchasing the system • Installing servers

  20. Defining needs Considerations: • What is the life of the server? • What job will the server perform? • How many users will the server support? • What are the needs of users?

  21. Defining needs Considerations: • How reliable must the server be? • Will you use clustering for the server? • How safe must data on the server be?

  22. Defining needs Considerations: • What are your backup plans? • How do you plan to back up the server? • How could demands on the server change? • Will the server work with existing hardware?

  23. Selecting the server • Compatibility is the basic prerequisite. • The server should meet Novell’s/Microsoft’s hardware requirements.

  24. Selecting the server The server brand should have: • An established service organization. • High-quality support. • Technical support databases. • In-house engineering.

  25. Purchasing the system

  26. Installing servers • Test server hardware. • Read server documentation. • Use automated tools provided by the manufacturer. • Install an NOS.

  27. Installing servers • Run potential NLMs, NT services and processes, or UNIX/Linux daemons together during testing. • Check for updates provided before installation.

  28. MAINTAIN AND TROUBLESHOOT SERVERS • Reduce failures • Resolve failures

  29. Reduce failures • Use reliable, tested servers and components. • Reduce the number of server tasks (when possible). • View the server’s error logs.

  30. Reduce failures • Install management software. • Install special software that supports hot-swap in RAID. • Shut down/restart the server periodically.

  31. Resolve failures • Take backups/test restores before a server goes into production. • Preserve purchase data. • Retain configuration details.

  32. Resolve failures • List software needed to rebuild the server. • Maintain contact information for service on the server. • Document configuration changes and error messages. • Document anything special about the server/disk drive configuration.

  33. SUMMARY Distinguish between a server and a workstation: • Server processors • Bus capabilities • RAM • Disk subsystems • Disk Topologies: RAID • I2O • Server state monitoring • Hot-swap components

  34. Summary Choose servers for Windows NT and Netware: • Defining needs • Selecting the server • Purchasing the system • Installing servers

  35. Summary Maintain and troubleshoot servers: • Reduce failures • Resolve failures