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Budgeting Basics FGFOA Budget Workshop. December 19, 2013. Todd Bond, Budget Officer Polk County Board of County Commissioners. Course Outline. Budget background What is a budget ? What Guides the Budget? Budget Process and Policy Funds and Balancing

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budgeting basics fgfoa budget workshop

Budgeting BasicsFGFOA Budget Workshop

December 19, 2013

Todd Bond, Budget Officer

Polk County Board of County Commissioners

course outline
Course Outline
  • Budget background
    • What is a budget?
    • What Guides the Budget?
  • Budget Process and Policy
    • Funds and Balancing
    • TRIM – What is it and how it impacts us
  • Budget Types
    • Operating
    • CIP Process
  • Budget Methods
    • Line Item
    • Program Budgets
    • Zero Based
    • Budgeting for Outcomes
  • Budget Monitoring and Reporting
what is a budget
What is a Budget?
  • The Merriam-Webster dictionary definition:
    • A statement of the financial position of an administration for a definite period of time based on estimates of expenditures during the period and proposals for financing them
what is a budget1
What is a Budget?



User Fees

License Fees

Permit Fees

Fund Balance

Bond Proceeds

Misc. Revenue


Position Costs

Operating Costs

Capital Equipment

Capital Projects


How much are citizens willing to pay?

What level of service do citizens want?

what is a budget2
What is a Budget?
  • Government Finance Officers Association (GFOA)
    • Financial Plan - a plan of what is projected to be received in revenue, as well as how much will be spent over the same time
    • Operations Guide – used as a tool by organizations to guide operations, as well as capital expenditures
    • Policy Document – provides information on goals, objectives, service levels, challenges, trends, and policies
    • Communications Device - communicates to the Board and the public what is being done with tax revenues

Putting the budget ahead of the policy is the wrong way to do it. It's too often the way it's done in Washington.

Spencer Abraham

what guides our budget
What Guides our Budget?
  • Florida Statutes
  • Best Practices – GFOA
  • Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
  • Local Policies
    • Ordinances, Resolutions, Charters
florida statutes
Florida Statutes
  • There are numerous Florida Statutes
    • Chapter 129 County Annual Budget
      • Establishes guidelines for County Annual Budget
        • FS 129.01 “Budget system established.”
        • FS 129.03 “Preparation and adoption of budget.”
        • FS 129.04 Sets the “Fiscal Year”.
    • FS 166.241 for Municipality Budgets, Fiscal Years, and Budget Amendments
florida statutes continued
Florida Statutes Continued
  • Chapter 200 Determination of Millage
    • FS 200.065 Method of Fixing Millage
      • Sets the timeline for establishing property taxes for all local governments and other taxing authorities
    • FS 200.011 Duty of County Commissioners and School Board in setting rate of taxation
      • Establishes that the Commissioners determine the amount to be raised for all County purposes for the Board as well as other County taxing authorities
florida statutes continued1
Florida Statutes Continued
  • Budget must be balanced
  • Defines budget process
  • Establishes budget amendment process
  • Defines budget system
  • Defines fiscal year
  • Establishes that it is unlawful to overspend the budget
legal requirements
Legal Requirements
  • Budget shall conform to the State’s uniform chart of accounts
    • Expenses are assigned to functional categories
      • General Government
      • Public Safety
      • Transportation
      • Economic Environment
      • Human Services
      • Culture/Recreation
      • Inter-fund Transfers
basic structure
Basic Structure
  • Fund Types
    • General Fund
      • Only fund that can be used across the Board for all General County Purposes
    • Special Revenue Funds
      • Account for proceeds of specific revenue sources requiring separate accounting because of legal or regulatory provisions or administrative action
        • e.g. Transportation Trust Fund, Special Revenue Grants, Fire Services Fund, etc…
basic structure continued
Basic Structure (continued)
  • Fund Types (continued)
    • Debt Service Funds
      • Account for the accumulation of resources for and payment of the County’s long-term debt other than those payable from the operations of Enterprise Funds
    • Capital Funds
      • Account for the acquisition or construction of major capital facilities and the acquisition of environmentally sensitive land
        • e.g. CIP Road Projects Fund, Public Safety Capital Improvement Fund
basic structure continued1
Basic Structure (continued)
  • Fund Types (continued)
    • Enterprise Funds
      • Used to account for operations that are financed and operated in a manner similar to private business enterprises
        • e.g. Solid Waste Funds, Utilities Funds, Rohr Home Fund
    • Internal Service Funds
      • Account for the financing of goods and services provided by one department or agency to other departments or agencies, and to other governments on a cost reimbursement basis
        • e.g. Fleet Maintenance Fund, Fleet Replacement Fund, Employee Health Insurance Fund, Information Technology
generally accepted accounting principles gaap
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
  • Combination of standards and simply the commonly accepted ways of recording and reporting accounting information
  • Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB)
    • The source of GAAP used by State and Local governments in the United States
best practices gfoa
Best Practices - GFOA

GFOA has established a collection of practices that identify enhanced techniques and effective strategies for state and local government practitioners


local policies county charter
Local Policies - County Charter
  • Article I: “Polk County shall be a Home Rule Charter County, and except as may be limited by this Home Rule Charter, shall have all powers of self-government granted now or hereafter by the Constitution and Laws of the State of Florida”
  • Article II: “The Board of County Commissioners shall have specific powers and duties to review the budgetary requests including salaries and make the final budgetary determinations and appropriations for all County governmental operations…”
budget process

Adoption Phase

Review Phase

Preparation Phase

Planning Phase

Budget Process

Budget & CIP Calendar


Board Retreat

5 – 10 Year Projections

Budget Kickoff

Forms & Instructions

Work Sessions with County Manager


Proposed Budget

BoCC & Public Review

Two Public Hearings


trim process
TRIM Process
  • Florida Statute 200 – Determination of Millage
    • TRIM – stands for Truth in Millage
    • Sets timeline for millage that drives the whole budget calendar for local government
    • The process that establishes property taxes
    • All taxes are computed based upon taxable value
      • Taxable value/1,000 x millage rate = property tax
property tax calculation
Property Tax Calculation
  • Example:
    • Assessed value: $150,000
    • Less Homestead Exemption: ($50,000)
    • Taxable value: $100,000
    • 100,000/1,000= 100 x 6.8665 = $686.65
budget types
Budget Types
  • Operating Budget
    • One year
    • Multiyear – recommended practice
  • Capital Budget
    • Adopted as part of overall budget
    • Developed separately as a “Capital Improvement Plan” (CIP)
    • First year is funded
operating budgets
Operating Budgets
  • Personal Services
    • Salaries and benefits
  • Operating Expenditures
    • Office supplies, fuel, contracts, etc.
  • Capital Expenditures
    • Equipment, vehicles, etc.
  • Reserves
multiyear budget
Multiyear Budget
  • Second year plan or “Rolling Plan”
    • The first year is adopted and following years are a tentative spending plan
    • Budgets and Plans are re-done every year
  • Two-Year Budget
    • 2nd year plan is adjusted in the “off year” and adopted
    • Every other year becomes a one year budget
  • TRIM process is required every year
benefits of multiyear budgeting
Benefits of Multiyear Budgeting

Enables strategic and tactical thinking

Identifies trends

Demonstrates the need for reserves

Early problem identification

Viewed favorably by bond rating agencies

capital improvement plan budgets
Capital Improvement Plan Budgets
  • Five to twenty-year plan
    • Includes funding sources and operating costs of finished projects
    • May also include Unfunded Projects
  • Approved through a separate process
  • Adopted annually as a plan
  • Included in adopted budget
types of cip projects
Types of CIP Projects
  • Roads
  • Intersections
  • Jails
  • County Facilities and Buildings
  • Parks and Athletic Fields
  • Drainage
  • Landfills
  • Water mains, pumps, and wells
polk county cip process
Polk County CIP Process
  • Departments and Divisions identify projects
  • Divisions prepare “Carry forward” Update (April - May)
  • County Manager Reviews (June)
  • Board Workshops (August)
  • Approval During Public Hearings (September)
  • “True Up” of Adopted Budget (December)
budget methods
Budget Methods
  • Line Item Budget
    • Focuses on items being bought or paid for
      • Travel, office supplies, fuel, etc.
    • Keeps track of how much was spent on items
    • Easy to develop, start with last year’s cost
    • Also known as “Traditional Budgeting”
      • Typically built upon last year’s cost
    • Emphasis is not placed on services provided
we can t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them

“We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.”

Albert Einstein

budget methods1
Budget Methods
  • Program Budgets
    • Focuses on expected services and activities
      • Performance objectives are used
    • Revenue and expense are linked to programs that meet community goals
    • Identifies anticipated results and outputs
budget methods2
Budget Methods
  • Zero Based
    • Asks managers to build a budget, starting from zero
    • All expenses must be justified for each new budget
    • Budgets are analyzed for its needs and costs regardless of whether the budget is higher or lower than the previous one
    • Time-consuming and costly
budget methods3
Budget Methods
  • Performance Based
    • Focus on results/outcomes, not inputs
    • Shows relationship between program funding levels and expected results
    • Aids in assessing productivity, quantity, and quality
    • Multiple variations, such as “Budgeting for Outcomes”
budget amendments
Budget Amendments
  • Florida Statute 129.06 “Execution and Amendment of budget”
    • Local authorities can approve or delegate authority to approve amendments, if total appropriations of the fund do not change.
    • Use of Reserves has to be Board approved.
    • Funds can be increased by resolution for unanticipated revenue.
    • Public Hearing required for any other purposes.
budget monitoring and reporting
Budget Monitoring and Reporting
  • Budget vs. actual reports
    • % spent compared to % of year completed
    • Keep in mind normal/seasonal fluctuations
      • Debt service may be paid early in the year
      • Park costs increase during league seasons
    • Payroll schedules