Nanotechnology in Daily Life Joshua Moreno Danielle Miller Scott Marwil
Overview Nanotechnology in Electronics Nanotechnology in Automobiles Nanotechnology in Clothing
Nanotechnology in Electronics • Very close to being in actual consumer products • Can increase the power and speed of devices by several times
Current Process • Lithography – top down method of writing structures on a surface with a probe • Lithography can only go so far • Memory and processor speeds are nearing their current theoretical maximums • As we near the theoretical limits, traditional silicon chips become less reliable due to size issues • Square arrays over hexagonal
Computers • The new process of building computers will be with a bottom up process • Block co-polymer lithography • 3-4 times smaller chips • 2-3 times the power • No start-up time
Faster Processors • etching can only go so far • 10-15% better drive current gives better performance and less leakage • Transistors from carbon nanotubes that have doubled the electrical current
New Memory Types • Nanodots • Nano sized dots of nickle • Terabyte storage capacity • Can be packed much closer as they act as independent units
Bio-Nanotechnology • Nano chips inside of cells • Huge medical potential • Spiral structure found most durable • By 2020, 2500 transistors could fit on a cell
Cell Phones • Many the same aspects of computers • Smaller transistors give higher frequencies = better reception • Longer battery life • Phone companies would need less towers
Cameras • Possibilities of no flash • SMPD image sensors can sense more light and IR wave lengths • 12 mega pixel cell phone cameras due to quantum dots • Quantum dots are color specific and absorb and transfer light better than silicon receptors
Maybe not Everyday to You • The U.S. military uses electronics on an everyday basis. • Night vision and thermal imagers are used by soldiers, pilots, and UAVs • Gives the US a major advantage
Night Vision • The core of night vision is the microchannel plate(MCP) • Electrons pass through thousands of microchannels which multiply the electrons • New microfilm that is 10,000 times thinner than a human hair
Thermal Detectors • New development with carbon nanotubes • Microbolometer detectors • New technology has lowered micron pitch down to 17 from previous numbers of 50-100.
Wrap-up • Still a lot of development occurring in this field • However the first of the next generation of chips, processors, computers, etc should be coming into the market within the next couple of years • Greatly increases the current capabilities in all aspects
Nanotechnology in Automobiles Unless otherwise indicated, all information and figures in this section are from: Skandan, Ganesh, Singhal, Amit, and Soberevilla, Damian (2009) ‘Automotive Parts: Impact of Nanotechnology’, Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Second Edition, 1, 241-248
Nanotechnology in Automobiles • Coatings • Structural Applications • Aftermarket Products • Potential Applications
Clear Coatings • Outer paint of car has 5+ layers • ~100 μm • Benefits • 3x scratch resistance • Longer gloss life • Future: UV curing • Less VOCs • Better appearance • Better Durability
Antireflection Coatings http://www.ytca.com/images/site_images/coated.jpg Glass with nanoscale layers of sun protecting and infrared reflecting material embedded in it.
Engine Block Coating Why nanostructured coatings could improve engine efficiency?
Engine Block Coating Research is being conducted, but not likely to reach market anytime soon. Qualities Needed: • Low friction • Corrosion resistant • Scuffing resistant • Thermal insulation • Affinity for oil coating
Nanomaterials for Structural Applications Objective: Reduce weight of vehicles
Nanomaterials for Structural Applications b a c Objective: Reduce weight of vehicles
Nanomaterials for Structural Applications • Objective: Reduce weight of vehicles • 25% less than glass and carbon fiber filled plastics • 80% less than steel
Nanomaterials for Structural Applications • Objective: Reduce weight of vehicles • 25% less than glass and carbon fiber filled plastics • 80% less than steel • Why: Improve fuel economy • Positive Effect: Mechanical properties are better than traditional materials • Negative Effect: Increases the cost This application of nanotechnology can be found in everyday cars.
Nanotechnology-Enabled Products for the Aftermarket • Windshield coatings repel • Rain • Snow • Bugs • Bird droppings • Spray paint • Most other liquids • Car Air Purifier • Circulated air cleaned by a reduction and oxidation through a photocatalytic reaction
Potential Applications www.etrailer.com/Merchant2/graphics/00000001/pics/M/F/MFConverter%20Diagram%20with%20Air%20Tube_500.jpg • Catalytic Converters & Fuel Cells • Nanocomposite catalysts reduce the amount of Pt • Pt costs a lot
Potential Applications • Magnetic Sensors • Allow contactless determination of mechanical parameters • Multiple layers of metal • Each layer only 1-2nm • Engine Coolants • Greater thermal conductivity Better heat transfer
Nanotechnology in Clothing Resistant to spills and stains Water resistant Odor resistant Ability to conduct electricity
Spill and Stain Resistance Treats the material with chemicals that change the clothing on the molecular level Allows for spills to bead, rather than soak into fabrics
Water Resistance Material made from coating polyester fibers with small silicone filaments Layer of silicone nanofilaments is highly hydrophobic Causes water to bead
Water Resistance Combination of hydrophobic surface chemistry and the nanoparticle structure leads to this “super-hydrophobic” effect
Water Resistance Lotus leaves use a similar combination of water repelling materials and tiny nanostructures The silicone nanostructures also trap a layer of air in-between them creating a permanent air layer known as a plastron
Odor Resistance Material that can trap odors and release them in the washing machine Achieved by treating the fabric with nanoparticles
Conducting Electricity Pairs of textile fibers covered with zinc oxide nanowires can generate electrical current using the piezoelectric effect.
Conducting Electricity Nanogenerators create electricity through movement Allows a person to power their own electrical devices while moving
Conducting Electricity Current nanogenerators do not produce enough power After further research, estimates say one sq meter of material could produce 80 mW of power
Conclusion Research is proving that the possibilities are limitless Some items already marketed Nano-tex Further research still needed
Sources http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3892457 http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16126-nanotech-clothing-fabric-never-gets-wet.html http://www.nano-tex.com/technologies/neutralizer.html http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-02/giot-fni020908.php
Group S4 Rebuttal (2nd Presentation) Joshua Moreno Danielle Miller Scott Marwil
General Comments • Overall, there was very little negative feedback on the presentation. • Thanks to all for the constructive criticism. • We feel we have greatly improved our presentation skills from the first presentation to this one.
Speaker Performance • Several notes were made about inadequate use of the microphone and laser pointer. We will do our best to ensure that we make full use of the items available to present topics clearly. • We felt that the presentation was a solid performance and that only small improvements could have been made.
Presentation • Several comments were made about the good use of relevant pictures and humor. We tried our best to implement more of these aspects into our presentation. • We were missing some citing information and will do our best to not make this mistake in the future.
Food • Everyone loves ICE CREAM!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Group 1 Evaluation of Group 4 Presentation: Nanotechnology in the Daily Life By Group 4
Positive Notes • Fantastic topics chosen • Lots of details and specifics about nanotechnology in computers and cars • Really captured the audience with relevant, and important, data critical to devices used everyday • Slides had good format • Easy to read • Lots of helpful graphics • A lot was presented • The need for further inquiry of certain topics was almost unnecessary due to thorough presentation • Showed a variety of uses from small microprocessors, to travel and clothing, to an overall global economic scale. • The topics were broken up into clear, succinct, subjects that were easy to follow, and all important to everyday use.
Opportunities for Improvement • Group 1 thinks that the only area for improvement would be to practice working together as group presenters more • However, the overall presentation, transitions, data, and topics presented were highly professional • Danielle is a bit quiet when speaking. Perhaps better use of the microphone would have helped