Regional climates
Download
1 / 28

Regional climates Variety of different scales of climatic investigations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 55 Views
  • Uploaded on

Regional climates Variety of different scales of climatic investigations macroclimate - largest area of study, area extends for 4 x 10 8 m 2 , up to 6000 m vertically (continental in scale) mesoclimate - 10 3 m 2 up to 4 x 10 8 m 2 in area (sub continental in scale)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Regional climates Variety of different scales of climatic investigations' - yvette-burns


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  • Regional climates

  • Variety of different scales of climatic investigations

    • macroclimate- largest area of study, area extends for 4 x 108 m2, up to 6000 m vertically

      • (continental in scale)

  • mesoclimate- 103 m2 up to 4 x 108 m2 in area

    • (sub continental in scale)

  • Local climate - a group of microclimates that characterize a specific region; 103 to 108 m2 in size

  • Microclimate - the smallest category 1 to 104 m2 in area

    • An individual field or park



  • Climate classification: What, Why and How?

    What:Organize regions with similar climates

    Why:Understand what causes the climate to be what it is and when to worry about departures

    How:Look at moisture, temperature, evaporation, transpiration, vegetation, altitude, latitude, etc. and decide on some value that sets the boundary (threshold)- commonly related to plants


    • Köppen climate classification scheme

    • Uses Monthly mean temps, monthly mean precipitation, and annual mean temps to establish major climatic zones

      • designated with capital letters

    • Widely used but frequently criticized

      • no agreement between plants and climate

      • variability in the factors that set boundary

    • = climate classification changes constantly


    Köppen Climate table

    Key characteristic for

    sub categorization

    Class

    Class name

    Subcategory

    Subcategory name

    No dry season

    A

    Tropical humid

    Af

    Tropical wet

    Short dry season; heavy

    monsoonal rains in other

    months

    Am

    Tropical monsoonal

    Winter dry season

    Aw

    Tropical savanna

    Low-latitude desert

    B

    Dry

    BWh

    Subtropical desert

    Low-latitude dry

    BSh

    Subtropical steppe

    Mid-latitude desert

    BWk

    Mid-latitude desert

    Mid-latitude dry

    BSk

    Mid-latitude steppe

    Mild with dry, hot summer

    C

    Mild Mid-Latitude

    Csa

    Mediterranean

    Mild with dry, warm

    summer

    Csb

    Mediterranean

    Mild with no dry season,

    hot summer

    Cfa

    Humid subtropical

    Mild with dry winter, hot

    summer

    Cwa

    Humid subtropical

    Mild with no dry season,

    warm summer

    Cfb

    Marine west coast

    Mild with no dry season,

    cool summer

    Cfc

    Marine west coast


    Humid with severe

    Severe

    Mid-Latitude

    Humid

    continental

    winter, no dry

    season, hot summer

    D

    Dfa

    Humid with severe

    winter, no dry

    Humid

    continental

    season, warm

    summer

    Dfb

    Humid with severe,

    Humid

    continental

    dry winter, hot

    summer

    Dwa

    Humid with severe,

    Humid

    continental

    dry winter, warm

    summer

    Dwb

    Severe winter, no

    dry season, cool

    summer

    Dfc

    Subarctic

    Severe, very cold

    winter, no dry

    season, cool summer

    Dfd

    Subarctic

    Severe, dry winter,

    cool summer

    Dwc

    Subarctic

    Severe, very cold

    and dry winter, cool

    summer

    Dwd

    Subarctic

    Polar tundra, no true

    summer

    E

    Polar

    ET

    Tundra

    Perennial ice

    EF

    Ice Cap

    H

    Highland


    Climate zones of the world

    Divided into alphabetic categories

    A, B, C, D, E, H zones


    KÖPPEN Climate classification

    Tropical climates designated with a capital “A”

    Based in part on vegetation zones that are sensitive to moisture and temperature


    Tropical (A) Climates -

    All tropical climates are warm

    the subdivisions are based on differences in rain

    Tropical Rainforest (Af) Climates located

    0-15° N/S Lat.

    Diurnal temperature range is greater than the

    difference between the warmest and coolest months

    (annual range).

    Every month has precipitation and no month is

    deficient in rainfall. This high amount of

    rainfall keeps the soil moisture at capacity. EVT

    occurs at potential rate


    Am- Tropical monsoonal climate

    Diurnal temperature range is greater than the

    difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range).

    seasonal precipitation surplus and deficit

    Distinctive dry and wet season related to wind reversal

    Aw- Tropical savanna climate

    Diurnal temperature range is greater than the

    difference between the warmest and coolest months (annual range).

    precipitation deficit much of the year

    Distinctive dry and wet season


    B climates - semi-arid to arid

    Several sub categories


    All B-climates have less than 30” of annual precipitation

    BW climates are arid (less than 10”) and can be divided further based on latitude (temperature)

    BWh- low latitude hot and dry

    BWk- mid latitude cool and dry

    BWh is a function of Hadley cell circulation; occur between 18 and 32° N-S Latitude


    BS climates are semi-arid (more than 10” but less than 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    BSh- low latitude hot and dry

    BSk- mid latitude cool and dry

    A gradational change from A climates on either side of the B climates


    C climates- Mesothermal temperate 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    Warm summers (<10°C); Mild Winters (between -3 to 18°C)

    Annual moisture distribution determines subcategories


    C-subcategories 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    Cf = moisture evenly distributed throughout the year

    Cw = 10x the amount of moisture in the summer as compared to the driest winter month

    Cs = 3x as much moisture in the winter as compared to the driest summer month; at least 1 month with less than 3 cm of precipitation


    • Csa= called Mediterranean climate 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

      • western edge of mid-latitude continents

    • Cfa= called a Humid subtropical climate

      • Southeastern edge of mid latitude continents

    • Cfb= called Marine west coast

      • Western edge of continents at higher latitudes


    D climates- Severe Mid-latitude 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    All have severe winters; short summers that range form hot in the south to cool to the north


    E climates - Polar No true summer 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    Cold all year long


    Köppen climate regions of North America 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)


    Köppen climate regions of the US 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)


    Trewartha 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps) climate classification scheme- a modified version of the Köppen system.

    Attempts to redefine the broad climatic groups in such a way as to be closer to vegetational zoning.

    Group A- this is the tropical climate group, defined as places which do not receive annual winter frosts (in maritime regions this corresponds closely to the Köppen boundary). Climates with no more than 2 dry months are classified Ar , while others are classified Aw . There is no specific monsoon climate identifier.

    Group B- this is identical to the Köppen scheme.

    Group C- in the Trewartha scheme this category includes subtropical climates only (8 or more months above 10 °C). The identifiers are the same as the first two letters of the Köppen identifier - the Mediterranean climate is denoted Cs and the humid subtropical climate, Cf or Cw .


    Trewartha 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps) Climate scheme (Continued)

    Group D- this group represents temperate climates. Continental climates are represented as Dca (Köppen Dfa, Dwa, Dsa ) and Dcb (Köppen Dfb ,Dwb ,Dsb ). Maritime temperate climates (Köppen Cfb ,Cwb ,Csb ,Cfc ) are denoted Do in the Trewartha classification. The dividing point between maritime and continental climates is 0 °C in the coldest month, rather than the usual Köppen value of -3 °C.

    Group E- this group is undivided and contains the continental subarctic climates (Köppen Dfc ,Dwc ,Dfd )

    Group F- this is the polar climate group, split into Ft (Köppen ET ) and Fi (Köppen EF ).

    Group H- Highland climates - in which altitude is the most important factor determining climate.


    • Other climate classification schemes 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    • Thornthwaite-based his scheme on moisture effectiveness and temperature efficiency

      • mathematical relationships easy to identify from available meteorological data

      • Also uses info on season when rain or snow falls


    Genetic classification 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    Identifies the “Why” of climates first and uses that information to establish each climatic zone

    -which air mass dominates


    Air masses and climatic types 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    Wet

    Dry

    Warm

    Cold


    Climate zones determined by air mass 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)


    • Vegetation 30” of rain) and can be divided further based on latitude (temps)

    • Closely linked to climate

    • Often used as PROXY data for lack of climate data

    • 5 distinct veggie zones

      • Forests = trees; many different types of forests

        • e.g., hardwood, conifer, rainforest

      • Deserts = discontinuous veggies; scrub brush; cactus, etc.

      • Grasslands = grasses

      • Taiga = cold; climate evergreen conifer forests

      • Tundra = cold; grasses sedges mosses and lichens