sustaining health and human services encouraging the creative application of gis n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Sustaining Health and Human Services: Encouraging the Creative Application of GIS PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Sustaining Health and Human Services: Encouraging the Creative Application of GIS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 32

Sustaining Health and Human Services: Encouraging the Creative Application of GIS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 148 Views
  • Uploaded on

Sustaining Health and Human Services: Encouraging the Creative Application of GIS. Gregory Elmes, Gerard Rushton, and Robert McMaster University Consortium for Geographic Information Science. UCGIS. University Consortium for Geographic Information Science

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Sustaining Health and Human Services: Encouraging the Creative Application of GIS' - yves


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
sustaining health and human services encouraging the creative application of gis
Sustaining Health and Human Services: Encouraging the Creative Application of GIS

Gregory Elmes, Gerard Rushton,

and Robert McMaster

University Consortium for Geographic Information Science

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

ucgis
UCGIS
  • University Consortium for Geographic Information Science
    • Formed to serve as an effective, unified voice for the geographic information science research community in the US
    • To foster multidisciplinary research and education
    • To promote the informed and responsible use of geographic information science and geographic analysis for the benefit of society

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

ucgis research challenges
UCGIS RESEARCH CHALLENGES
  • Spatial Data Acquisition and Integration
  • Distributed & Mobile Computing
  • Extensions to Geographic Representation
  • Cognition of Geographic Information
  • Interoperability of Geographic Information
  • Spatial Analysis & Modeling in a GIS
  • Future of the Spatial Information Infrastructure
  • Uncertainty in Spatial Data
  • Scale
  • GIS and Society

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

cross cutting exercise
CROSS-CUTTING EXERCISE
  • Major application areas examined in light of the ten research challenges
      • Crime Analysis
      • Emergency Preparedness
      • Urban and Regional Planning
      • Water Resources
      • Transportation Planning and Monitoring
      • Public Participation GIS
      • Public Health and Human Services
  • Journal of Urban and Regional Information Systems Association, Spring 2000, Vol. 12, 2

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

objective improving health and human services using gis
Objective: Improving Health and Human Services Using GIS
  • UCGIS analysis of health status and health care with particular regard to challenges being faced in researchand education (Rushton et. al, 2000).
    • Emphasize roles played by geomatics and spatial analysis in reducing burden of mortality and morbidity, and in improving the efficiency and equity of public health services.
    • Pose some educated guesses as to the emerging roles for GIS in the near future.

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

us national significance
US National Significance
  • US ranked 37th in recent WHO assessment of national health care systems
      • Three classes:
        • Top 10% - afford any care available
        • Middle class – vulnerable to catastrophic costs
        • Bottom third – equivalent to health care conditions in many developing nations
      • Geography of disease incidence and care access – Appalachia, Mississippi Delta, First Nations
      • Excess disease burden in other regions - not well documented at local levels

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

public health and human services
Public Health and Human Services
  • Health care represents ~ 13 % US GDP
  • Effective application of GI to reduce expenditures on health through improved surveillance, health care delivery, access to care, or evaluation of outcomes of intervention projects will be of national significance.
  • Although technological benefits can be rapidly adopted world-wide, many barriers remain

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

national security issues
National Security Issues
  • Health System vulnerability to globalization of disease
    • West Nile Fever, Encephalitis
  • Vulnerability to bio-terrorism, natural disasters
  • Vulnerability to polarization of health and health care
    • disease re-emergence
    • fragmentation of society

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

background
Background
  • Reviews of GIS in Public Health & Services
    • Clarke et al., 1996; Croner et al., 1996; Richards et al., 1999; Rushton et al., 1997; Rushton,1999; Vine et al., 1997; Yasnoff and Sondik, 1999
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • CDC supports development of GIS software (Dean, 1999)
  • National Cancer Institute
      • NCI supports development of software for disease cluster identification, (Kulldorff, et al., 1998).

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

background cont
Background (cont.)
  • CDC and ATSDR
    • Four annual meetings on GIS and Public Health.
    • CDC also collaborates with the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Department of Health and Human Services on an annual conference on health data and statistics
        • increasingly has geographic information and internet technology components.

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

background cont1
Background (cont.)
  • National institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), under US Public Law 103-43 requested proposals to develop a health-related GIS for Long Island, NY.
      • “The prototype health-related GIS will provide researchers a new tool to investigate relationships between breast cancer and the environment on Long Island, and to estimate exposures to environmental contamination.” (NCI, 1999, p.3).
      • Private sector
        • Contract awarded to AverStar Inc.

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

background cont2
Background (cont.)
  • NIH - Spring 2000 call for proposals
    • First such call to emphasize integrating social environment
    • Add to traditional emphasis on clinical work
    • Recognition of geographic context and geographical tools and methods
    • High level of proof required for research ethics and practice of medical community

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

research issues
Research Issues
  • Improving Disease Surveillance Data Systems
  • Systematic studies of access, health treatment choice, and health outcomes
  • Spatial-Temporal Aspects of GIS and Health
  • Risk factors as contributors to disease and ill-health
    • Ecological Studies of Environmental Factors and Disease Transmission
  • Targeting health resources to demand, under-served
  • Communicating GIS results with the public
  • Maintaining the confidentiality of health records

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

gis research for public health and human services
GIS Research for Public Health and Human Services
  • Focus on advancing health analysis beyond the conventional areas of mapping, towards interactive models of analysis, visualization and multimedia, and sharing spatial information.

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

communicating gis
Communicating GIS
  • To Health Professionals
  • To Government
  • To Public

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

slide19

EQUALITY

Between Regions

slide20

HOMOGENEITY

Within Regions

slide21

Mortality Rate

Black Males 65 yrs +

Multiple Objective Region

spatial temporal aspects
Spatial-Temporal Aspects
  • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences - Geospatial Lifelines (Mark and Egenhofer 1999)
  • Capture individuals' location at regular or irregular temporal intervals
    • methods to trace locations of individual patients or controls back in time, to discover spatial clusters or environmental exposures
    • designing, prototyping, and assess computational models for geospatial lifelines
    • examining the ethical and legal implications of recording individuals' geospatial lifelines in databases, and procedures for appropriate restrictions on data analysis and dissemination.

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

ucgis usgs workshops
UCGIS-USGS Workshops
  • Universities, Federal Agencies, Pacific Ring Health initiative (UCSD)
  • Vector-borne disease
  • Spatial Analysis in GIS
    • Set of tools for professionals
    • Multiple disciplines
    • Best practice analysis in a GIS environment
  • Unresolved Research Issues

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

ucgis usgs workshop proposed topics
Geography of Disease

How are vector-borne diseases unique?

Environmental determinism

Spatial Analysis

MAUP

Small Number Problem

Spatial Autocorrelation

Data Integration

Data Structures

Common data structures

Interrelating multiple point themes

Transformations

Aggregation and disaggregation

Best interpolation

Techniques

How to map ‘junk’

UCGIS-USGS Workshop: Proposed Topics

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

proposed workshop topics cont
Spatial Modeling

Spatial econometrics

multicollinearity

Spatial Metrics

Spatial Factor Analysis

Causal/Path Analysis

Probabilistic Modeling

Association

Relating cases to land cover

Decision Support

Utility

Risk: Harm, hazards, uncertainty

Cost-benefit analysis of education, migration...

Forecasting

Accuracy

Under and over-reporting

Positional, temporal, etc.

Disclosure reporting

Proposed Workshop Topics (cont.)

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

emerging themes
EMERGING THEMES
  • Data integration
    • New sensors at every scale
    • New data sources and forms
  • Data mining and knowledge discovery
    • warehousing, selection, cleaning, transformation, geo-registration, mining, model selection, interpretation, and use.
  • Participatory GIS
    • Involving the public, local knowledge, new representations

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

participatory gis
Participatory GIS
  • Local groups to mission agencies
  • Agencies with overlapping or conflicting mandates
    • SCALE
  • Irregular development of capabilities
    • INEQUITY
  • Community Integrated GIS

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

slide29

Catholic University of Mozambique - Beira

University of Pretoria

Local CIGIS

Collaboratory

University

West Virginia University

data acquisition
Data Acquisition
  • Characterized by massive increase in spatio-temporal resolution
    • Georeferenced mobiles and appliances
    • IKONOS and similar imagery
    • Remote monitoring of individual’s health
        • In Home
        • In Body
          • Nanotechnology

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

recommendations
Recommendations
  • Recommendation #1
    • Establish greater levels of professional interaction between medical professionals, epidemiologists, statisticians, and geographers.
  • Recommendation #2
    • Establish international dialog on the improvement, standardization, and security of the quality and quantity of spatial information associated with health statistics

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS

summary
SUMMARY
  • Public Health and Health Services relatively late on GI adoption curve
  • Considerable professional and public resistance to GI
    • for very different reasons
  • GI has potential to contribute to health care cost containment in many ways
  • GI also has potential to exacerbate inequalities or reduce them
  • Policy is essential but extremely contentious

EC 6th Workshop on GI and GIS