network security principles symmetric key cryptography public key cryptography l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Network Security Principles, Symmetric Key Cryptography, Public Key Cryptography PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Network Security Principles, Symmetric Key Cryptography, Public Key Cryptography

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

Network Security Principles, Symmetric Key Cryptography, Public Key Cryptography - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 219 Views
  • Uploaded on

Network Security Principles, Symmetric Key Cryptography, Public Key Cryptography. Modified by Xiuzhen Cheng Originally provided by Professor Rick Han (rhan@cs.colorado.edu) at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Network Security. Classic properties of secure systems: Confidentiality

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Network Security Principles, Symmetric Key Cryptography, Public Key Cryptography' - yves


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
network security principles symmetric key cryptography public key cryptography

Network Security Principles, Symmetric Key Cryptography, Public Key Cryptography

Modified by Xiuzhen Cheng

Originally provided by Professor Rick Han (rhan@cs.colorado.edu) at the University of Colorado at Boulder

network security
Network Security
  • Classic properties of secure systems:
    • Confidentiality
      • Encrypt message so only sender and receiver can understand it.
    • Authentication
      • Both sender and receiver need to verify the identity of the other party in a communication: are you really who you claim to be?
    • Authorization
      • Does a party with a verified identity have permission to access (r/w/x/…) information? Gets into access control policies.
network security 2
Network Security (2)
  • Classic properties of secure systems: (cont.)
    • Integrity
      • During a communication, can both sender and receiver detect whether a message has been altered?
    • Non-Repudiation
      • Originator of a communication can’t deny later that the communication never took place
    • Availability
      • Guaranteeing access to legitimate users. Prevention of Denial-of-Service (DOS) attacks.
cryptography

Encryption

Decryption

Encryption

Decryption

Cryptography

plaintext

ciphertext

plaintext

  • Encryption algorithm also called a cipher
  • Cryptography has evolved so that modern encryption and decryption use secret keys
    • Only have to protect the keys! => Key distribution problem
    • Cryptographic algorithms can be openly published

plaintext

ciphertext

plaintext

Key KA

Key KB

cryptography 2
Cryptography (2)
  • Cryptography throughout history:
    • Julius Caesar cipher: replaced each character by a character cyclically shifted to the left. Weakness?
      • Easy to attack by looking at frequency of characters
  • Mary Queen of Scots: put to death for treason after Queen Elizabeth’s I’s spymaster cracked her encryption code
  • WWII: Allies break German Enigma code and Japanese naval code
    • Enigma code machine (right)
cryptography 3
Cryptography (3)
  • Cryptanalysis – Type of attacks:
    • Brute force: try every key
    • Ciphertext-only attack:
      • Attacker knows ciphertext of several messages encrypted with same key (but doesn’t know plaintext).
      • Possible to recover plaintext (also possible to deduce key) by looking at frequency of ciphertext letters
    • Known-plaintext attack:
      • Attacker observes pairs of plaintext/ciphertext encrypted with same key.
      • Possible to deduce key and/or devise algorithm to decrypt ciphertext.
cryptography 4
Cryptography (4)
  • Cryptanalysis – Type of attacks:
    • Chosen-plaintext attack:
      • Attacker can choose the plaintext and look at the paired ciphertext.
      • Attacker has more control than known-plaintext attack and may be able to gain more info about key
    • Adaptive Chosen-Plaintext attack:
      • Attacker chooses a series of plaintexts, basing the next plaintext on the result of previous encryption
      • Differential cryptanalysis – very powerful attacking tool
        • But DES is resistant to it
  • Cryptanalysis attacks often exploit the redundancy of natural language
    • Lossless compression before encryption removes redundancy
principles of confusion and diffusion

Encryption

Decryption

plaintext

ciphertext

plaintext

Key KA

Key KB

Principles of Confusion and Diffusion
  • Terms courtesy of Claude Shannon, father of Information Theory
  • “Confusion” = Substitution
    • a -> b
    • Caesar cipher
  • “Diffusion” = Transposition or Permutation
    • abcd -> dacb
    • DES
principles of confusion and diffusion 2
Principles of Confusion and Diffusion (2)
  • “Confusion” : a classical Substitution Cipher

Courtesy:

Andreas

Steffen

  • Modern substitution ciphers take in N bits and substitute N bits using lookup table: called S-Boxes
principles of confusion and diffusion 3
Principles of Confusion and Diffusion (3)
  • “Diffusion” : a classical Transposition cipher

Courtesy:

Andreas

Steffen

  • modern Transposition ciphers take in N bits and permute using lookup table : called P-Boxes
symmetric key cryptography

Encryption

Decryption

plaintext

ciphertext

plaintext

Key KA

Key KB=KA

Symmetric-Key Cryptography

Secure Key Distribution

  • Both sender and receiver keys are the same: KA=KB
  • The keys must be kept secret and securely distributed – we’ll study this later
    • Thus, also called “Secret Key Cryptography”
  • Data Encryption Standard (DES)
symmetric key cryptography 2
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (2)
  • DES
    • 64-bit input is permuted
    • 16 stages of identical operation
      • differ in the 48-bit key extracted from 56-bit key - complex
      • R2= “R1 is encrypted with K1 and XOR’d with L1”
      • L2=R1, …
    • Final inverse permutation stage
symmetric key cryptography 3
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (3)
  • Data Encryption Standard (DES)
    • Encodes plaintext in 64-bit chunks using a 64-bit key (56 bits + 8 bits parity)
    • Uses a combination of diffusion and confusion to achieve security
        • abcd  dbac
    • Was cracked in 1997
      • Parallel attack – exhaustively search key space
    • Triple-DES: put the output of DES back as input into DES again with a different key, loop again: 3*56 = 168 bit key
    • Decryption in DES – it’s symmetric! Use KA again as input and then the same keys except in reverse order
    • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) successor
symmetric key cryptography 4
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (4)
  • DES is an example of a block cipher
    • Divide input bit stream into n-bit sections, encrypt only that section, no dependency/history between sections

Courtesy:

Andreas

Steffen

  • In a good block cipher, each output bit is a function of all n input bits and all k key bits
symmetric key cryptography 5
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (5)
  • Electronic Code Book (ECB) mode for block ciphers of a long digital sequence
  • Vulnerable to replay attacks: if an attacker thinks block C2 corresponds to $ amount, then substitute another Ck
  • Attacker can also build a codebook of <Ck, guessed Pk> pairs
symmetric key cryptography 6
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (6)
  • Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode for block ciphers
  • Inhibits replay attacks and codebook building: identical input plaintext Pi =Pk won’t result in same output code due to memory-based chaining
  • IV = Initialization Vector – use only once
symmetric key cryptography 7
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (7)
  • Stream ciphers
  • Rather than divide bit stream into discrete blocks, as block ciphers do, XOR each bit of your plaintext continuous stream with a bit from a pseudo-random sequence
  • At receiver, use same symmetric key, XOR again to extract plaintext
symmetric key cryptography 8
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (8)
  • RC4 stream cipher by Ron Rivest of RSA Data Security Inc. – used in 802.11b’s security
  • Block ciphers vs. stream ciphers
    • Stream ciphers work at bit-level and were originally implemented in hardware => fast!
    • Block ciphers work at word-level and were originally implemented in software => not as fast
    • Error in a stream cipher only affects one bit
    • Error in a block cipher in CBC mode affects two blocks
    • Distinction is blurring:
      • Stream ciphers can be efficiently implemented in software
      • Block ciphers getting faster
symmetric key cryptography 9
Symmetric-Key Cryptography (9)
  • Symmetric key is propagated to both endpoints A & B via Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm
    • A & B agree on a large prime modulus n, a “primitive element” g, and a one-way function f(x)=gx mod n
    • n and g are publicly known
    • A chooses a large random int a and sends B AA=ga mod n
    • B chooses a large random int b and sends A BB= gb mod n
    • A & B compute secret key S = gba mod n
    • Since x=f-1(y) is difficult to compute, then observer who knows AA, BB, n, g and f will not be able to deduce the product ab and hence S is secure
symmetric key distribution
Symmetric Key Distribution
  • Key distribution
    • Public key via trusted Certificate Authorities
    • Symmetric key?
      • Diffie-Helman Key Exchange
      • Public key, then secret key (e.g. SSL)
      • Symmetric Key distribution via a KDC (Key Distribution Center)
symmetric key distribution 2
Symmetric Key Distribution (2)
  • Symmetric Key distribution via a KDC (Key Distribution Center)
    • KDC is a server (trusted 3rd party) sharing a different symmetric key with each registered user
    • Alice wants to talk with Bob, and sends encrypted request to KDC, KA-KDC(Alice,Bob)
    • KDC generates a one-time shared secret key R1
      • KDC encrypts Alice’s identity and R1 with Bob’s secret key, let m= KB-KDC(Alice,R1)
      • KDC sends to Alice both R1 and m, encrypted with Alice’s key: i.e. KA-KDC(R1, KB-KDC(Alice,R1))
    • Alice decrypts message, extracting R1 and m. Alice sends m to Bob.
    • Bob decrypts m and now has the session key R1
symmetric key distribution 3
Symmetric Key Distribution (3)

m=

  • Kerberos authentication basically follows this KDC trusted 3rd party approach
  • In Kerberos, the message m is called a ticket and has an expiration time
public key cryptography

Encryption

Decryption

plaintext

ciphertext

plaintext

Key KPUBLIC

Key KPRIVATE

Public-Key Cryptography
  • For over 2000 years, from Caesar to 1970s, encrypted communication required both sides to share a common secret key => key distribution problems!
  • Diffie and Hellman in 1976 invented asymmetric public key cryptography – elegant, revolutionary!
    • Sender’s key differs from receiver’s key
    • Simplifies key distribution – just protect Kprivate
    • Useful for authentication as well as encryption
public key cryptography 2

Encryption

Decryption

plaintext

ciphertext

plaintext

Key KPUBLIC

Key KPRIVATE

Public-Key Cryptography (2)

Public Key Distribution

Secure Key

  • Host (receiver) who wants data sent to it in encrypted fashion advertises a public encryption key Kpublic
  • Sender encrypts with public key
  • Receiver decrypts with private key
public key cryptography 3

Encryption

Decryption

plaintext

ciphertext

plaintext

Key KPUBLIC

Key KPRIVATE

Public-Key Cryptography (3)

Public Key Distribution

Secure Key

  • Decryption algorithm has the property that
    • only a private key Kprivate can decrypt the ciphertext, and
    • it is computationally infeasible to deduce Kprivate even though attacker knows the public key Kpublic and the encryption algorithm
public key cryptography 4
Public-Key Cryptography (4)
  • Decryption algorithm has the property that only a private key Kprivate can decrypt the ciphertext
    • Based on the difficulty of factoring the product of two prime #’s
  • Example: RSA algorithm (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman)
    • Choose 2 large prime #’s p and q
    • n=p*q should be about 1024 bits long
    • z=(p-1)*(q-1)
    • Choose e<n with no common factors with z
    • Find d such that (e*d) mod z = 1
    • Public key is (n,e), private key is (n,d)
    • Message m is encrypted to c = me mod n
    • Ciphertext c is decrypted m = cd mod n
rsa example

d

e

c = m mod n

m = c mod n

d

c

RSA example:

A host chooses p=5, q=7. Then n=35, z=24.

e=5 (so e, z relatively prime).

d=29 (so ed-1 exactly divisible by z.

e

m

m

letter

encrypt:

“L”

17

1524832

12

c

letter

decrypt:

17

12

“L”

481968572106750915091411825223072000

public key cryptography 428
Public-Key Cryptography (4)
  • Provides security because:
    • There are no known algorithms for quickly factoring n=p*q, the product of two large prime #’s
    • If we could factor n into p and q, then it would be easy to break the algorithm: have n, p, q, e, then just iterate to find decryption key d.
  • Public-key cryptography is slow because of the exponentiation:
    • m = cd mod n = (me)d mod n = (md)e mod n
    • 1024-bit value for n
    • So, don’t use it for time-sensitive applications and/or use only for small amounts of data – we’ll see how SSL makes use of this
public key cryptography 5
Public-Key Cryptography (5)
  • A 512 bit number (155 decimals) was factored into two primes in 1999 using one Cray and 300 workstations
    • 1024 bit keys still safe
  • Incredibly useful property of public-key cryptography:
    • m = cd mod n = (me)d mod n = (md)e mod n
    • Thus, can swap the order in which the keys are used.
    • Example: can use private key for encryption and a public key for decryption – will see how it is useful in authentication!