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Revise Lecture 27. Business Valuations. What is intrinsic value? What is intrinsic value analysis? How common shares are valuated?. Business Valuations. Intrinsic Value A share’s intrinsic value is the price that is justified for it when the primary factors of value are considered.

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business valuations
Business Valuations
  • What is intrinsic value?
  • What is intrinsic value analysis?
  • How common shares are valuated?
business valuations1
Business Valuations

Intrinsic Value

  • A share’s intrinsic value is the price that is justified for it when the primary factors of value are considered.
  • In other words, it is the real worth of the debt or equity instrument as distinguished from the current market price.
business valuations2
Business Valuations

Intrinsic Value Analysis

Intrinsic value analysis is the process of comparing the real worth of a share with the current market price or proposed purchase price.

The primary goal of intrinsic value analysis is to locate clearly undervalued or clearly overvalued firms or shares.

business valuations3
Business Valuations

There are three approaches for valuing common shares?

  • Single-period model
  • Perpetual dividends, no growth
  • Perpetual dividends, constant growth
mergers and acquisitions
Mergers and Acquisitions
  • Financial managers use the term growth to mean increases in the size and activities of a firm over the long run.
  • Three measures of corporate growth are commonly used;
  • Increases in sales
  • Increases in profits
  • Increases in assets
mergers and acquisitions1
Mergers and Acquisitions

Internal Growth

A firm is said to be growing internally when it increases sales and profits by expanding its own operations.

It may purchase new machinery to increase its capacity to produce existing products or it may purchase machinery and train its sales force to produce and sell a new product.

mergers and acquisitions2
Mergers and Acquisitions

Internal Growth

In either case, management is committing itself to an expansion of existing activities.

In one case, the firm seeks a larger volume of sales with current products.

In the other, the firm begins to expand into new product areas and markets

mergers and acquisitions3
Mergers and Acquisitions

Internal Growth

Internal growth may be funded from sources inside or outside the firm. Internal sources include retained earnings and the funds shielded by depreciation and other noncash expenses.

If outside funds are sought, the firm may offer debt or equity shares to raise money.

mergers and acquisitions4
Mergers and Acquisitions

External Growth

External growth occurs when a firm takes over the operations of another firm. The acquiring firm may purchase the assets or stock or may combine with the second firm.

Since the second company has sales and assets of its own, the first company does not have to generate the new business from scratch.

mergers and acquisitions5
Mergers and Acquisitions

External Growth

External growth offers a number of advantages over internal growth;

  • Rapid Expansion
  • Immediate cash inflows
  • Reduction of risks
  • Economies
mergers and acquisitions6
Mergers and Acquisitions

External Growth

  • Rapid Expansion:

Taking over the operations of another firm is the quickest path to growth. The acquiring firm eliminates the lead time for ordering and installing machinery, producing the product, and achieving sales in the marketplace.

mergers and acquisitions7
Mergers and Acquisitions

External Growth

2. Immediate Cash Inflows:

Since the firm is taking over an operating business, it will realize almost immediate inflows as customers receive their goods and pay for them.

These inflows would not be received if the firm had to begin new construction of facilities and then the production of goods.

mergers and acquisitions8
Mergers and Acquisitions

External Growth

3. Reduction of Risk

Whenever a firm enters a new market, it takes a calculated risk. Will the new products sell in sufficient volume to be profitable? Will the firm’s managers be able to make the proper decisions in the new operating environment?

The acquired firm will be operating, perhaps successfully, in an environment familiar to its managers. By entering a field through an established and experienced management, we reduce the chances for failure.

mergers and acquisitions9
Mergers and Acquisitions

External Growth

4. Economies

Entering a new market involves a number of start-up cost. A start-up cost is an initial expense incurred when a firm begins a new operation. It may be the cost of training a new sales force or paying the legal fees required for the new activity. Frequently, these costs can held to a minimum by purchasing an operating firm.

mergers and acquisitions10
Mergers and Acquisitions

External Growth


Example: It would be less expensive to take over a firm with a strong marketing force than to have to compete with the marketing force by building one’s own marketing department. The reduction of start-up costs offers economies from external growth

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Mergers and Acquisitions
  • Reasons for Seeking Growth
mergers and acquisitions12
Mergers and Acquisitions

A number of reasons may be offered as to why firm’s seek to grow. Among the more important ones are the following;

  • Diversification
  • Stability
  • Operating Economies
  • Profits from Turnaround Situations
reasons for seeking growth
Reasons for Seeking Growth

1. Diversification

Most firms recognize that diversifying their operations reduces the risk of failure. If a firm produces a single product, it is subject to the market pressures on the product.

If a competitor introduces an improved version of the product or a substitute for it, the firm may no longer be able to compete in the marketplace.

reasons for seeking growth1
Reasons for Seeking Growth


Since demand and competitive factors are difficult to predict, the only certain safeguard against a market disaster is diversification.

If the firm is operating in a variety of markets with many products, it can cope better with a cutback in a single product or market

reasons for seeking growth2
Reasons for Seeking Growth

2. Stability

When a firm is able to achieve a larger volume of sales, it becomes more stable than firms with smaller volumes of sales. The high level of revenues allows production economies and other cost-saving techniques, which allow a high margin of profit on sales.

reasons for seeking growth3
Reasons for Seeking Growth


Also, the high sales level allows a deep penetration of most of the firm’s markets. If a firm dominates a market, it is better able to withstand pressure and problems in the market.

reasons for seeking growth4
Reasons for Seeking Growth

3. Operating Economies

Large firms are able to achieve economies not available to small firms.

As an example, Procter & Gamble is a large producer and seller of nondurable consumer products such as soaps, paper products and food items.

reasons for seeking growth5
Reasons for Seeking Growth
  • Because of its size, the firm is able to purchase large blocks of television advertising time at lower rates than firms purchasing fewer blocks of time. The reduced advertising rates are an economy that would not have been available if Procter & Gamble had not grown to its present size
reasons for seeking growth6
Reasons for Seeking Growth

4. Profits from Turnaround Situation

When a firm is operating below its potential profit levels, a new management could remove inefficiencies and solve problems, resulting in a dramatic rise in profits.

Such a firm offers a turnaround situation. When a firm is doing poorly but has strong potential for improvement, the firm will become the target of acquiring firms.