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Scientific Revolution. The way it was. Aristotle Claudius Ptolemy Geocentric view Earth stood motionless Sun, planets, moon, stars revolved around earth Said to be weightless Planets and sun were considered pure, light and good.

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the way it was
The way it was
  • Aristotle
  • Claudius Ptolemy
  • Geocentric view
  • Earth stood motionless
  • Sun, planets, moon, stars revolved around earth
  • Said to be weightless
  • Planets and sun were considered pure, light and good.
  • Closer to heaven thus better than earth which was heavy and badddddd
  • No mover = no motion
  • Earth = heavy, therefore no mover = no motion
issues with the ancient view
Issues with the ancient view
  • Planets could be observed moving in noncircular patterns
  • Epicycles
  • Planets made a second revolution
  • This revolution was tangential to their primary orbit around earth
  • Everyone was appeased
  • Polish monk
  • Astronomer
  • Mathematician
  • Heliocentric view
  • Heavily criticizedby both science and church alike (both Luther and Calvin were critical)
  • Works were illogical, unbiblical and un-Christian
  • Danish astronomer
  • Europe’s most modern astronomical lab
  • Collected tons of data that disputed the Ptolemy theory
  • Not 100% sold on Heliocentric theory
  • Said both sun and earth were motionless
  • German astronomer
  • Brahe’s former asst.
  • Supporter of heliocentric theory
  • 3 laws of planetary motion
  • 1.) earth and planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits, not circular
  • 2.) velocity determined by distance (closer to the sun the faster)
  • 3.)calculate the size of the planets based on mathematical formula
  • Italian
  • Mathematician, astronomer, physicist
  • Telescope
  • Mountains of moon
  • Moons of Jupiter
  • Rings of Saturn
  • Sunspots
  • Provided actual evidence of heliocentric view
  • Devout Christian
  • Bible should not serve as basis of science
  • “and yet it does move”
  • House arrest
  • Studied less controversial topics – falling bodies, theory of the pendulum, principle of inertia
  • English
  • Cambridge Univ. math prof by late twenties
  • Natural laws dominate physical universe
  • Heavenly bodies move due to the operation of gravity
  • Principia Mathematica– laws of gravitation explained
q uestions
  • 2+2 =
  • 3 > _____
  • Abraham Lincoln is the greatest American President ever.
  • Logic and reason
  • 3 is greater than 2
  • 2+2 = 4
  • We don’t need experiments. We know this to be a universal truth
  • Blue is blue
  • Fundamental truths
  • Innate knowledge
  • Knowledge before experience
  • Reason is not enough
  • Emphasizes the role of experience (observation) and evidence.
  • Fundamental part of the scientific method
  • Knowledge is tentative, nothing is finite
  • Experience creates knowledge
  • Locke – Tabula Rasa
  • Sir Francis Bacon – scientific method
  • Rationalism
  • Empiricism
  • Sir Francis Bacon
  • Ethics, history, philosophy
  • Very critical of Aristotle and deductive reasoning
  • Supporter of inductive reasoning
  • “bottom up logic”
  • Piece together systems to make something greater
  • Focus on empirical evidence and data analysis to drive theories and experiments
rene descartes
Rene Descartes
  • “father of modern rationalism”
  • Deductive method
  • “top down logic”
  • Breakdown analysis
  • Doubt all knowledge until you’re left with one absolute truth
  • Your own existence
  • Cogito ergo sum
  • “I think therefore I am”
  • Impact on Voltaire, Rousseau and Paine
inductive v deductive
Inductive v. Deductive
  • Science
  • History
  • Political science
  • Organizational theory
scientific societies
Scientific societies
  • Promote the scientific community and profession of scientific research
  • Scientific research and discovery became “professions”.
  • State sponsored (i.e. Royal Society in England, French Royal Academy of Sciences)
  • Wealthy families (i.e. the Medici family)
other lasting scientific works
Other lasting scientific works
  • William Harvey – first to demonstrate the heart and the circulation of blood
  • Edward Jenner – pioneer of the smallpox vaccine
  • Robert Boyle – father of modern chemistry. Distinction between chemical element and chemical compound
  • Alessandro Volta – developed the storage battery
  • William Gilbert – suggested that the earth was a huge magnet
  • James Hutton – the surface of the earth had been undergoing gradual changes for thousands of years
lasting impact of the scientific revolution
Lasting impact of the Scientific Revolution
  • Lots of new scientific detail / content
  • All natures operates in accordance with natural laws
  • These laws are all capable of discovery by man
  • All this leads into the Enlightenment
  • Scientific research and methodology would be used to study human affairs, the nature of governments, society, economics, and human nature.
age of reason
Age of Reason
  • Enlightenment
  • Use reasoning to uncover the natural laws that governed human affairs and society
  • Very critical of the church and absolute monarchies
  • Promotion of individual freedoms
p hilosophes
  • French
  • Critics of the old regime
  • New ideas about government, economics, religion, education, society
  • Progress of society towards perfection
  • Human beings were good but had become corrupted
  • Reform institutions and you reform society
key ideas of the philosophes
Key ideas of the Philosophes
  • 1. Reason
  • - no intolerance, bigotry or superstition
  • - miracles don’t solve problems informed thinking does
  • 2. Natural Laws
  • - dictate the universe and human society
  • 3. Happiness
  • - rejected old medieval belief
  • - happiness is a natural right
  • 4. Progress
  • - changes in economics and government would drive social progress
  • 5. Liberty
  • - intellectual freedom is a natural right
  • - without it how can society progress?
  • 6. Toleration
  • - advocated religious tolerance
r ousseau
  • Reforms in education and government
  • Natural education
  • Emile – book
  • Rousseau – teacher, Emile – student
  • Student learned through experience and NOT formalized schooling via books and rules
  • Government is a “necessary evil”
  • The Social Contract – general will
  • People agree to be ruled by a small group based on what the masses want
  • Rejected extreme individualism
  • Obedience to the government is an act of general will
  • Did not believe in democracy
  • HOWEVER his concept of the general will gave a foundation for the development of democratic theory
john locke
John Locke
  • Defender of the Glorious Revolution
  • Tabula rasa
  • Knowledge comes from experience
  • Second Treatise of Government
  • Social contract theory
  • People come together to create a government to protect their natural rights
  • Authority is derived from the governed
  • If the government fails the people then they reserve the right to change it / abolish it.
  • Huge influence on Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence
  • Candide – satirical book that attacked superstition, religious persecution, war
  • Enlightened despotism
  • Communicated with Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia
  • Deism
  • Tolerance
  • Great admirer of England’s constitutional government
  • Very critical of France’s absolutism
baron de montesquieu
Baron de Montesquieu
  • Different systems work for different peoples
  • Geography, population, economics, social and religious traditions
  • The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
  • Separation of Powers / Checks and Balances
  • Divide power amongst members of government so that no one person may control entirely
  • Heavy influence on the US Constitution and French Constitution
new economics
New Economics
  • Physiocrats
  • Critical of old mercantilist policies
  • The economy should be free from artificial controls (i.e. tariffs, trade restrictions, taxes on income, etc….)
  • Governments should adopt “laissez – faire” policies of non-interference
adam smith
Adam Smith
  • Advocate of laissez faire economics
  • The Wealth of Nations
  • Workers, farmers, artisans create wealth not how much gold and silver a nation obtains
  • People should be free to pursue their own economic “self interests”
  • The state should act as a “passive policeman”
the wealth of nations
The Wealth of Nations
  • Government must not interfere with a free functioning market
  • Limit themselves to defending the nation and protecting property
  • In a free market supply and demand laws will create a self regulating economy
  • Do away with tariffs
  • Every individual is motivated by self interest
  • Competition and self interest are mutually beneficial
  • The “invisible hand” of competition acts as an automatic regulator
  • Under this system wealth will be created for a nation
comparative economic policies
Comparative economic policies
  • Jean Baptiste Colbert
  • Advocate of mercantilism
  • Policies designed to benefit France’s balance of trade
  • Sugar plantations overseas
  • Slave stations in Africa
  • Development of colonies in Canada
  • Subsidize French industry by granting monopolies and enforcing high tariffs
  • Adam Smith
  • Encouraged governments to abandon trade restrictions, tariffs and monopolies
  • Free trade and no government restrictions
  • Individuals working with their own self interest in mind would create wealth
enlightened despots
Enlightened despots
  • 1. be mindful of those you are ruling over
  • 2. “first servant of the state”
  • 3. not in it for the glory of yourself but in it for the glory of the people / state
  • 4. do NOT be wasteful of the tax payers hard earned dollar
  • 5. betterment of the state / people
  • 6. don’t chase after lust
  • 7. set the standard
  • 8. equal / just the same
  • 9. do NOT support democracy
  • 10. symbol of the state
  • Educated
  • Progressive minded
  • Reasonable
  • Moral
  • Fiscally responsible
  • Tolerant / respectful
religious toleration
Religious toleration
  • Jews
  • 1. speak their own language during religious services
  • 2. supporter of education for Jewish children / higher education
  • 3. yellow ribbons / armbands that designate themselves to be Jewish
  • 4. treat the Jewish community as you would treat your own.
enlightened despots1
Enlightened Despots
  • good of the people
  • education, legal reforms, religious toleration, elimination of irrational customs
  • None claimed the rule via divine right
  • Placed restrictions on the church
maria theresa
Maria Theresa
  • Took power away from nobles
  • Gave power to state employees
  • Expelled the Jesuits from Austria
  • Supported serfs by reducing the work week for them and passing anti-abuse laws
  • Shared power with her son (Joseph II)
joseph ii
Joseph II
  • Epitome of enlightened despotism
  • Abolished serfdom and feudal laws
  • Proclaimed religious toleration for all Christians and Jews
  • Jews given civil rights
  • Established additional churches
  • Reduced religious holidays and closed 1/3rd of church monasteries and convents
  • Supported hospitals
  • Supported education and by training teachers and opening schools to 1/4th of Austria’s children
  • Reduced the influence of the church
  • Reformed the judicial system
  • Abolished capital punishment in Austria
  • Tried to force the German language on the empire
  • Religious groups and peasants disliked his treatment of religion
  • Did not train a successor
  • After Joseph’s death new emperor Leopold II repealed many of Joseph’s policies and BUT did NOT give the nobles back all their power
frederick the great
Frederick the Great
  • “first servant of the state”
  • Had Voltaire serve at his court
  • Supported scientific agriculture – iron plow, introduced new crops, subsidized peasant farmers (tools and seeds)
  • Encouraged industrial production of textiles and metals
  • Unified national code of laws
  • Abolished torture except for cases of treason and murder
  • Encouraged Huguenots from France and Jews from Poland to move to Prussia (but did NOT support religious toleration for Jews)
  • Junkers (Prussian nobles) allowed to maintain strict control over the Prussian serfs
  • Education for peasants was limited to reading and writing
  • Trained no successor
catherine ii
Catherine II
  • Took power after having her husband Peter III killed
  • Enlightened woman
  • Restricted the practice of torture
  • Supported Russia’s first private printing press
  • Allowed limited religious toleration of Jews
  • New legal codes
  • School for noble girls
  • Little to no support from nobles
  • Very little changed
  • Pugachev rebellion – Russian serf uprising from 1773 – 17775.
  • Rebellion marked the end of the reform period
  • Catherine now feared the peasantry and gave more powers back to the nobles
  • Philosophes were critical of capital punishment
  • Essay on Crimes and Punishments
  • Capital punishment / torture / barbarous punishment failed to deter crime
  • Certainty of punishment was far more effective
  • Severity had little impact
  • Punishment should focus on rehabilitation
The social contract's terms, when they are well understood, can be reduced to a single stipulation: the individual member alienates himself totally to the whole community together with all his rights. This is first because conditions will be the same for everyone when each individual gives himself totally, and secondly, because no one will be tempted to make that condition of shared equality worse for other men.... Once this multitude is united this way into a body, an offense against one of its members is an offense against the body politic. It would be even less possible to injure the body without its members feeling it. Duty and interest thus equally require the two contracting parties to aid each other mutually. The individual people should be motivated from their double roles as individuals and members of the body, to combine all the advantages which mutual aid offers them....- Jean Jacques Rousseau
According to Rousseau, when individuals agree to the social contract, what happens to their rights? What is the motivation of the people when they submit to the social contract?