the end of the ancient world
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BC (BCE): Before Christ or Before Common Era

AD (CE): Anno Dominae (in the year of our lord) or Common Era

When was year zero?

History can be seen in the rise and fall of empires. By the year 300, Rome was past its peak.
In Africa, people began to fight over resources while the Northern areas tried to fill the power vacuum left by Rome’s fall.
In India, the Gupta Empire began to fragment. The caste system was a detriment to progress, though. This did not allow new ideas to grow.
Geography played a major role in Medieval events. This can be seen in Constantinople, the English Channel, the Himalayas, and the Sahara Desert.




Around the world, the beginning of the Medieval Period is characterized by several elements:

1. Increased isolation of cultures. This might be from fear, threat of conquest, threat of war, fall of empires, or poverty.

2. Lack of cultural diffusion and tolerance. In the ancient world, many different cultures spread their languages, ideas, religions, and goods (culture). Medieval people feared what was different.
3. Slow progress in science and learning .

Did you eat

your dirt

today son?

4. A religious hegemony in Western Europe in the rise of the Catholic Church.
5. Belief in superstition, magic, miracles, and witchcraft. Without hard empirical science, people began to develop a wide range of strange beliefs.
Why do the Middle Ages ever end?

1. Knowledge - how to inspect the natural world. 2. Surplus crops sold for $$$. 3. The Christian Church splits in Europe / Establishment of the concept of the “Nation State”.

4. Banking/Profit = Renaissance