slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Slide 1 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Slide 1

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

Slide 1 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 183 Views
  • Uploaded on

Slide 1. Slide 1. SOCIOLOGY. Diversity, Conflict, and Change. The Sociological Imagination. Chapter One. Kenneth J. Neubeck University of Connecticut. Davita Silfen Glasberg University of Connecticut. The Sociological Imagination.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Slide 1' - yule


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Slide 1

Slide 1

SOCIOLOGY

Diversity, Conflict, and Change

The SociologicalImagination

Chapter One

Kenneth J. Neubeck

University of Connecticut

Davita Silfen Glasberg

University of Connecticut

the sociological imagination
The Sociological Imagination
  • Sociology — study of people as participants in and creators of society
    • The way in which society is organized, things that lead to stability, conflict and eventual change
  • Life chances — one’s ability to experience life and all its beneficial offerings
personal troubles and public issues dana s story
Personal Troubles and Public Issues: Dana’s Story
  • Personal troubles— matters involving a person’s character and his or her relations with others over which the individual has control
  • Public issues — societal conditions that transcend the individual and lie beyond his or her personal environment and control- like the structure of the society, how the institutions in a society are arranged etc.
the sociological imagination in action
The Sociological Imagination in Action
  • Sociological imagination —enables individuals to understand how broad features of society and the times in which they live affect and describe them.
    • How society is structured
    • How and why it seems to be changing
    • How these affect people
    • SI= H+B+SS and how these are related
the sociological imagination in action1
The Sociological Imagination in Action
  • Core concepts — fundamental ideas helpful in analyzing features of society
    • Derived from major intellectual traditions that historically shaped the discipline of sociology. European roots in early industrial society 18th and 19th centuries.
ibn khaldun founder of sociology
Ibn Khaldun founder of “Sociology”
  • Origins lie in antiquity- Tunisian, Ibn Khaldun.(1332-1395)- Khaldun talked about
  • societies are living organisms that experience cyclically:
    • birth, growth, maturity, decline, and ultimately death due to universal causes.
    • The Causes involve weakening social solidarity.
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • A century and a half after Ibn Khaldun, Machivelli wrote “THE PRINCE”
  • 4 centuries after Ibn Khaldun, Auguste Comte coined the word “Sociology”
    • Contemporary thinking in U.S. directly influenced by intellectual developments in late 18th and 19th centuries in Europe
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts1
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Auguste Comte- coined the word “sociology” and sought to model it after the physical sciences- “social physics”
  • Stages: 1. Theological 2. Metaphysical 3. Positive (or scientific)
  • Émile Durkheim: Influential Functionalist Thinker
    • Importance of culture and functions played by commonly shared moral values, beliefs, ceremonies and rituals- social solidarity
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts2
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • The Functionalist Perspective
    • Societies are adaptive social structures that help human beings adjust to their physical, political, economic, and cultural environment.
    • Also called Structural- Functionalism: because it takes note of social structure
      • Human society is naturally stable
      • Maintained by values, rules, and practices- a common culture
      • Division of labor facilitates harmony and must be accepted by individuals.
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts3
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Appropriate relationship of individual to society is one of accommodation and adaptation.
    • Deviants are inadequately socialized and so we need agencies of social control
    • Social control agencies will ensure that individuals adapt to society are re-socialized adequately.
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts4
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Social facts — social and cultural features of a society, existing independently of individuals who make it up, which influence people’s behavior- the “extrinsic coercion” that guides behavior.
    • Sum total of social facts= collective conscience
  • Durkheim talked about division of labor and society based on either 1. Mechanical or 2. Organic Solidarity.
slide12
1. Mechanical Solidarity: like a machine, each part useless without the others
  • Small rural communities with little division of labor
  • Strong group relations, individual non existent outside the group.
  • Individual conscience is the same as the collective conscience
  • People interested in each other because of the group and common values
    • Repressive law, punishment for the sake of punishment, eliminating the individual for the sake of the group

.

slide13

Organic Solidarity: like organs of a body, each organ autonomous but depends for its survival on other organs

-City communities, high level of division of labor

-Weak group relations. People interested in each other only because of functions each can perform for them “ what can he or she do for me”

-Individual conscience not the same as collective conscience

  • Restitutive law: for the purpose of restoring the individual so he continues functioning for society.
slide14
In stressing the importance of meeting society’s needs for order, Durkheim failed to see inequality as a matter for concern
  • Why is that? What part of the sociological imagination was he ignoring?
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts5
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • The Conflict Perspective
    • Social divisions and struggles characterize society; also belief that social change is result of conflict
      • Rousseau found class inequality to be unnatural and in violation of human nature in pre-revolutionary France.
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts6
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Karl Marx: Proponent of Radical Change
    • Marx concluded industrial capitalism—an economic system in which the means of production were owned by relatively few (thesis)—produced class inequalities (antithesis) that led to the system’s downfall and a new system based upon socialism- (synthesis)
    • Believed that social progress required conflict
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts7
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Bourgeoisie — ownership class or group of capitalists who are the principal private owners of society’s means of production under capitalism
  • Proletariat — working class; those who do not own the means of production and must, therefore, sell their labor power in order to live
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts8
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • False consciousness —failure of workers to understand that capitalism and not themselves are to blame for their alienation and misery
  • Class consciousness —workers’ understanding of what capitalism was doing to them and their realization that it would be desirable to join others in struggle against capitalist class
    • Sub-structure (unter-bau), Super-structure (uber-bau)
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts9
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Socialism — political economy in which production of goods and services involves social cooperation between workers to create wealth
    • Means of production are likely to be owned or controlled by the state.

Communism- wealth produced and controlled by the workers, there is no “state” in an ideal communistic society.

Marx & Alienation: Functionalists talk about inadequate socialization to explain deviant behavior, Marx talked about alienation:

sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts10
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Max Weber: Student of Social Stratification and Bureaucracy
    • Weber placed more emphasis on importance of analyzing features of a society other than its economic system
    • Viewed unequal distribution of power and prestige as central figures of society
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts11
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Social stratification — ways in which people occupying different social positions can be ranked from high to low
  • The position you occupy within a social structure determines your “life chances”
  • Life chances aren’t equal for everyone.
  • Bureaucracy — organization characterized by clear-cut division of labor, hierarchy of authority, adherence to formal rules.
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts12
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Weber was very concerned over implications of increasingly bureaucratized society. Bureaucracy stifles freedom and reason because everything is predetermined and clear-cut based upon rules. Weber called it the “Iron cage of Bureaucracy”.

Ours is a highly bureaucratized society. There are rules governing every aspect of your behavior, rules based upon laws, from the moment you are born to the moment you die and even beyond (wills, debts etc).

Two types of societies described by Tonnies

  • Gemeinschaft (community- based natural will- Wesenwille ) and Gesellschaft (society- based on rational will or Kurwille)
functionalist and conflict perspectives
Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives

Measure

Functionalist Perspective

Conflict Perspective

Societal diversity, power differences, systematic inequalities

Common culture, stability, harmony

Notable features of society

View of human nature

Irrational, in need of control

Rational or “good”

Individual’s relation to society

Individuals should adapt to society’s needs

Society should be organized to meet its members’ needs

Sources of deviant behavior

Failure of people to be adequately socialized

Alienation of people from harmful features of society

Views of deviance

Disruptive, dangerous

Inevitable

Basis for social progress

Conflict leading to transformation of society

Order in society

Means to social progress

Social movements for fundamental societal change

Conformity to social roles and the demands of social institutions

Influential European thinkers

Comte, Durkheim

Rousseau, Marx, Weber

sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts13
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Symbolic Interactionism: People Constructing Social Reality
    • Contemporary sociologists disagree over the degree people are pushed to behave in certain ways by prevailing features of society and the degree to which they create their own reality.
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts14
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Human agency — ability of humans to react to and change the social conditions surrounding them
  • Social determinism — important features of society are determinantsof what happens to individuals and how they behave and act.
sociology intellectual traditions and core concepts15
Sociology: Intellectual Traditions and Core Concepts
  • Symbolic Interactionism — sociological perspective that focuses on such topics as the ways in which shared meanings among individuals develop or changes through social interaction by use of language
  • George Herbert Mead, the “I” (subjective part of the personality) and the “me” (objective part of the personality) By judging yourself through the eyes of others you become aware of your self. In other words, you see yourself as others have seen and reacted to you. Your image of the “self” develops in this manner
  • Me-memory images of social conduct of others towards you
  • “I” spontaneous reaction based upon those memory images, whenever you encounter anything.
ethnomethodology
Ethnomethodology
  • The methodology of the people- Harold Garfinkle
  • Garfinkle claims that people are continually creating social structure through their actions and interactions
    • In order to uncover this “structure” ethnomethodologists deliberately break rules and violate people’s assumptions.
different perspectives different voices
Different Perspectives, Different Voices
  • Sociologists commonly borrow core concepts from different intellectual traditions
  • Sociology studied, and used for betterment of humanity- the classical tradition is a humanistic endeavor.
    • Unfortunately most sociologists today work for corporation or the government and hence lose the “humanistic” part of their field.