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Battling {the lack of} Biodiversity: A Butterfly & Hummingbird Meadow. Ashley So Carly Starke. Overview. Materials Methods Data Analysis Implications Taking Action Conclusion. Statement of the Situation Identification of the Problem Proposed Solution Background Ethical Issues

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battling the lack of biodiversity a butterfly hummingbird meadow

Battling {the lack of} Biodiversity:A Butterfly & Hummingbird Meadow

Ashley So

Carly Starke

overview
Overview
  • Materials
  • Methods
  • Data Analysis
  • Implications
  • Taking Action
  • Conclusion
  • Statement of the Situation
    • Identification of the Problem
  • Proposed Solution
  • Background
  • Ethical Issues
  • Objectives
  • Rationale
statement of the situation
Statement of the Situation
  • Lack of biodiversity in animal species
  • Unused space and empty land
  • Development and construction
    • Decreases amount of plants
      • Food source and habitat
solution
Solution
  • Butterfly & Hummingbird Garden
    • Wildflowers
background
Background
  • Local species to central NJ
    • Hummingbirds
      • Arrive mid-April and stay until early September
      • Ruby-throated and Rufous
    • Butterflies
      • Migrate from south during spring
      • Monarch and Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
    • Habitat: warm and dry, protection
      • Massed planting of one type
      • Caterpillar food plant
      • Weedy plants host to species
      • Heights
    • Food source: nectar
background1
Background
  • Contribution to the ecosystem
    • Biodiversity
      • Lost due to alteration of habitat, species in surrounding area, and climate change
background2
Background

Ruby-throated

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail

Rufous

Monarch

background3
Background
  • Wildflowers
    • Attract both hummingbirds and butterflies
    • Source of food and protection
  • NJ climate
    • Growing season
    • Warm and dry
    • Warm days, cools nights
ethical issues
Ethical Issues
  • Responsibility to care for environment
  • Need resources, but also need to give back
    • Give protection to species
    • Conserve
objectives
Objectives
  • Purpose: bring butterflies and hummingbirds to BTHS
    • Observe and record species
      • Flowers, hummingbirds, butterflies
    • Observe what plants species are attracted to
  • Effects of solution
    • Advantages
      • Habitat for species
      • Biodiversity
      • Observing nature
rationale
Rationale
  • Landscape designs to conserve species
  • Sites with greater diversity of habitat types and more varied terrain tend to have butterfly populations that are more stable over time
    • Woodland, grassland, heathland
    • Become adaptable
    • Change in climate
    • (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2010)
rationale1
Rationale
  • Evolution of columbine flowers in North America
    • Red, white, yellow
    • Plant population shift
      • Hummingbird-pollinated red flowers
      • Hawkmoth-pollinated white or yellow flowers
      • Natural selection to change flower color
    • (University of California - Santa Barbara, 2009)
rationale2
Rationale

Evaluate impact deer grazing can have on nest quality and food resources of birds

Decline of forest birds

Disease, loss of habitat and increase in number of animals that prey on bird nests

(Staedter, 2005)

site selection
Site Selection
  • Area
  • Moisture
    • Water-accessible
    • Drainage
      • Percolation tests
  • Sunlight
    • Warm days, cool nights
  • Practicality
    • Away from sports
    • Visible from basketball court
soil quality
Soil Quality
  • pH
  • Composition
    • Minerals (Chlorine, zinc)
    • Clay, sand
  • Moisture, drainage
soil classification
Soil Classification
  • Based on proportions of silt, sand, and clay
materials
Materials
  • Meter sticks, accurate to the nearest 0.1 m
  • Shovels
  • Rakes
  • American Meadows™ Butterfly & Hummingbird Seed Mixture, 1 lb. ($24.95)
  • Buckets
  • Sand
  • Hose (water)
  • Scarecrow (optional)
seed mixture
Seed Mixture
  • Wildflowers – extremely adaptable
  • Mix of perennial + annual blooms
    • First year
      • Sprout: ~2 weeks (8 days – months)
      • Bloom: 3-4 weeks after sprouting
      • Annual blooms
    • Following years:
      • Heavy perennial bloom + reseeded annual bloom
  • Store in cool, dry place (5 years)
preparing the soil
Preparing the Soil
  • Spring
  • Clear area of all existing growth
    • Particularly old roots - competition
  • Till ground
    • Turn soil, rake area flat
sowing the seeds
Sowing the Seeds
  • Next day
    • Windless
  • Amount
    • 1 lb. for 2,000 - 3,000 square feet
    • Up to 3x minimum coverage rates
    • Too dense inhibits growth
split sand method
Split & Sand Method
  • Divide seed mixture in half
  • Add 10 parts sand
  • Hand-sow
  • Repeat
  • Advantages
    • “Dilute seed”
    • Avoid missing areas
after sowing the seeds
After Sowing the Seeds
  • DO NOT rake or cover with soil
  • Compress seeds into soil
    • “Seed to soil” contact
  • Scare birds (optional)
  • Keep soil moist for 2-4 weeks
  • Weed by “clumping”
  • (American Meadows™, 2010)
maintenance of the meadow
Maintenance of the Meadow
  • Annual responsibilities:
    • Late fall: leave garden as is
      • Allows for any butterflies in egg, caterpillar, or chrysalis to survive winter
    • Reseed annual blooms (optional)
data collection
Data Collection
  • Observe and record types of plant growth and animal species
    • Photograph
    • Identify and classify species
  • Randomly select 10 plants of each type to measure average heights
    • Plot scatterplot of number of butterflies or hummingbirds attracted to specific flowers
      • To plan for future – which plants to reseed
timeline
Timeline
  • Monday, March 8
    • Place order (5 business days)
  • Tuesday, March 16
    • Till land
  • Wednesday, March 17 (after school)
    • Sow seeds
  • Thursday, March 18 – Thursday, April 1
    • Water area, weed
  • Thursday, April 1 – Thursday, April 29
    • Record types of flowers, plants, animal species
implications
Implications
  • Drawbacks
    • Requires maintenance
    • May decrease insect populations
  • Cost
    • $24.95 for seeds
    • Fundraising to decrease cost
groups
Groups
  • Education
    • Raise awareness
    • Asbury Park Press for publicity article
  • “Construction”
    • Organize ordering of and gathering of materials
    • Coordinate maintenance of meadow
slide32

Fundraising

    • Contact American Meadows™
    • Write to PSFA
    • Write to local botanists or NJ planting agencies
    • Host fundraiser
      • Sell plantable paper
fundraising
Fundraising
  • Eco-Calendar
    • Plant pages
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Benefit outweigh costs/effort
  • Garden will:
    • Increase biodiversity of flora and fauna
    • Increase aesthetic appeal of area
  • Costs:
    • Work
    • $30.00
thank you very much

Thank you very much.

Any questions?

references
References
  • American Meadows™. (2010). How to create your own wildflower meadow. Retrieved February 24, 2010 from http://www.americanmeadows.com/QuickGuideToWildflowers/WildflowerHowTo/WildflowerSeedPlantingInstructions.aspx.
  • Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (2010). Conservation from space: Landscape diversity helps to conserve insects. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 26, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­/releases/2010/02/100207214126.htm.
  • Sutton, P. (2009). How to create a butterfly and hummingbird garden. New Jersey Audubon. Retrieved February 28, 2010 from http://www.njaudubon.org/SectionBackyardHabitat/CreateaGarden.aspx.
  • Staedter, T. (2005). Deer decreasing forest bird population. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=deer-decreasing-forest-bi.
  • University of California - Santa Barbara (2009). Study of flower color shows evolution in action. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2009/06/090629165110.htm.