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EBRD and Power Generation Efficiency in Russia; achievements and challenges ahead. EPG Conference, 19-20 September 2011, Moscow Ioannis Papaioannou Senior Engineer, Energy Efficiency & Climate Change. Contents. EBRD and Energy Efficiency The main issues How EBRD can help

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EBRD and Power Generation Efficiency in Russia; achievements and challenges ahead


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    1. EBRD and Power Generation Efficiency in Russia; achievements and challenges ahead EPG Conference, 19-20 September 2011, Moscow Ioannis Papaioannou Senior Engineer, Energy Efficiency & Climate Change

    2. Contents • EBRD and Energy Efficiency • The main issues • How EBRD can help • Challenges ahead

    3. Contents • EBRD and Energy Efficiency • The main issues • How EBRD can help • Challenges ahead

    4. What is the EBRD? € billion • International financial institution, promotes transition to market economies in 29 countries from central Europe to central Asia • Owned by 61 countries and two inter-governmental institutions • Capital base of €30 billion Annual business volume (ABV) Net cumulative business volume Reconciled as at 31 March 2011

    5. The EBRD is active in all its countries of operations Turkey Unaudited as at 31 March 2011

    6. Launched in 2006. Results through to Q1 2011: EBRD’s sustainable energy investments to €6.6 billion, for total project value of €35 billion in 369 projects in 29 countries; Annual GHG emissions savings of 39.6 million tonnes CO2-eq p.a. (equivalent of more than Azerbaijan’s emissions) SEI 6 areas of investment are: EBRD and Energy Efficiency The Sustainable Energy Initiative (SEI) • 1. Industrial Energy Efficiency • 2. Sustainable Energy Financing Facilities • 3. Power Sector Energy Efficiency • 4. Renewable Energy Scale-up • 5. Municipal Infrastructure Energy Efficiency • 6. Carbon Markets Development

    7. EBRD and Energy Efficiency The SEI Operational Approach Via these three parallel activities SEI accounted for 24% of EBRD’s total and 75% of power sector portfolio in 2010 Working with governments to support development of strong institutional and regulatory frameworks that incentivise sustainable energy Technical assistance to overcome barriers: market analysis, energy audits, training, awareness raising; grant co-financing to provide appropriate incentives and address affordability constraints Projects with numerous clients, public and private, with a range of financing instruments

    8. Contents • EBRD and Energy Efficiency • The main issues • Typical Projects • Challenges ahead

    9. Thermal Power Generation represents around 70% of installed capacity and electricity production Gas is the primary fuel, but also coal has a significant share, and the prevailing policy is to continue with both gas and coal for the long term There is an increasing demand for both electricity and heat Some characteristics of the power system of Russia

    10. Some characteristics of the power system of Russia

    11. Official GHG emissions in Russia (thousand ton CO2 eq) Total emissions

    12. Official GHG emissions in Russia Emissions by sector 2009

    13. Official GHG emissions in Russia Energy related emissions 2009

    14. EBRD funded a study in 2009 • Market and Investment Needs Study (AF Consult, Finland) • To review and analyse the existing situation and general technical condition of the main TPPs and CHPs in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Mongolia; • To assess at a preliminary level the needs for investment projects for rehabilitation, energy efficiency and environmental performance improvement; • To review and assess the capabilities of local manufacturers of equipment; • To prepare a long list of appropriate investment projects and sub-projects that could be implemented in coal fired and gas fired TPPs and CHPs together with an order of magnitude estimation of the investment costs.

    15. Many old coal fired units, with more than 220,000 hours, with limited Rehabilitation Plans under “Capitalna Remont” Low achievable maximum load (~75% of nominal) Low availability (~60%) and reliability Low net efficiency (~ 32%) and high carbon (> 1.1 tonCO2/MWh) Poor Environmental performance (e.g. dust > 500 mg/Nm3) Few new units have been installed in the last 25 years, and even these are not Best Available Techniques (BAT), with design and operational performance indicators of the 80’s, so Very few super-critical steam for coal fired plants Some Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) for gas fired plants The thermal power plants of Russia based on EBRD’s study of 2009

    16. Most of the Russian and Ukrainian equipment manufacturers have not fully passed transition to market conditions and there is great scope to improve in order to approach their European peers, especially in terms of: Design and manufacturing technologies for overall achievable net efficiency Quality of materials and machining processes Customer service There is great need for new state-of-the-art units as well as rehabilitation and modernisation of existing units, especially for: Coal preparation systems (conveyors, crushing, mixing etc.) Boilers (burners, economisers, super-heaters etc.) Reconstruction of turbine parts (cylinders, rotors, blades etc.) Reconstruction of generators (rotors, stators, excitation, cooling etc.) Installation of modern DCS systems The thermal power plants of Russia based on EBRD’s study of 2009

    17. Contents • EBRD and Energy Efficiency • The main issues • How EBRD can help • Challenges ahead

    18. Technical Assistance to our clients • Free of charge Technical Assistance (TA) through donors funds • The overall aim of this advisory services is to assist both the Bank and its clients in the preparation of the most appropriate Rehabilitation or New Unit Programme

    19. Technical Assistance to our clients • 2 Framework Contracts, Call Off Notices; Technical Audits / Projects Review (Vattenfall, Germany and MWH, Italy) • To review and analyse the condition of existing equipment and recent years performance; • To review and analyse the necessary investment programme as a whole as well as the main projects it consists of in terms of technical and financial viability; • To perform a conceptual technical and financial analysis of the investment projects and expected benefits, including achievable capacity and availability improvements, extension of lifetime, increase of energy efficiency, reduction of carbon emissions and improved environmental performance.

    20. Technical Assistance to our clients • 7 TA assignments have been completed up to now • 2 of them in Russia, to review the clients’ investment programme and propose possible improvements • 4 in Kazakhstan, one to analyse alternative heat and power supply options for a large city and three for modernisation of CHP plants • 1 in Ukraine, to review alternative options for a new state of the art coal fired unit

    21. USD 150 million loan to TGK-8 for the installation of a new 410 MW CCGT at Krasnodar CHP Improve electricity operational efficiency from 32 to more than 55% Natural gas savings of around 390 million Nm3 per year Carbon emission savings of around 750,000 ton CO2 per year USD 75 million loan to TGK-13 for the completion of a 185 MW / 270 Gcal coal fired cogeneration unit at Krasnoyarsk CHP-3 The unit will replace old and inefficient heat only boilers and electric boilers Improve overall resource efficiency by around 15% Carbon emission reduction of around 240,000 ton CO2 per year How EBRD can helpTwo recent projects in Russia

    22. New TA Framework for the Power Sector • At this moment tendering for 3-4 framework contracts of total value EUR 1.5 million for Technical and Efficiency Audits / Projects Review / Projects Preparation for • Thermal Power Generation and Cogeneration plants of any technology and configuration; • Hydropower generation; • Grid connected renewable sources, i.e. wind, small hydro, biomass, solar, geothermal and waste to energy; • Power Transmission systems, including lines, substations, SCADA systems etc. • Gas and Power Distribution systems, including lines, substations, smart metering systems etc.

    23. Contents • EBRD and Energy Efficiency • The main issues • How EBRD can help • Challenges ahead

    24. Some projected characteristics of the power system of Russia IEA’s predictions for the power generation capacity for the “450 scenario” (450 ppm CO2eq in the atmosphere)

    25. Typical Dilemma for coal fired TPP

    26. Rehabilitation Extend lifetime for 15 years Improve availability by 10 pc points Improve efficiency by 3-5 pc points Improve environmental performance (what and how much?) New Units Electricity only Gas, CCGT only with efficiency > 52% (390 kgCO2/MWh) Coal, SC parameters with efficiency > 42% (860 kgCO2 /MWh) CHP cogeneration efficiency > combined efficiency for separate generation > 80% Gas, GT open cycle or CCGT Coal, SC steam parameters Resource EfficiencyTarget Performance Indicators

    27. Resource EfficiencyAdvanced Coal Technologies • SC and USC PC combustion (commercially available, many units around the world) • Higher investment is justified by efficiency and carbon benefits • Target is for 375 bar and 700oC by 2020, net efficiency > 48% • IGCC (commercially available, only 5 units around the world) • Specific use, high own consumption, net efficiency only 38 - 42% • CCS (still at development stage) • Double investment cost, very high own consumption, so nearly double generation cost • For Russia the “Carbon Capture Ready” concept seem appropriate

    28. Resource EfficiencyTypical Technical & Economic Characteristics

    29. Key challenges • Need for improved performance requirements; resource efficiency pays back fast • Need for significant investments (many new units and many modernisations) in parallel with the privatisation and regulation improvements of the power generation sector • Need for international know-how transfer to the major manufacturers of equipment

    30. Thank you Ioannis Papaioannou Senior Engineer, Energy Efficiency & Climate Change EBRD, One Exchange Square, London EC2A 2JN United Kingdom Tel: +44 20 7338 7024 Fax: +44 20 7338 6942 Email: papaioai@ebrd.com