Chapter4 - MILLING PROCESS . FIG. 1 Typical parts and shapes produced by various cutting processes . Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of milling machines . Fig. 3 Milling machines. Fig 4 Nomenclature of a common milling cutter . right hand cutter. Left hand cutter. right hand spiral.
FIG. 1 Typical parts and shapes produced by various cutting processes
Left hand cutter
right hand spiral
Left hand spiral
Fig. 5 Left and right hand cutters.
Fig. 6 Milling Cutters. a ) Helical b ) Plain
Course tooth mill
Helical mill (arbor type)
Metal slitting saw
Staggered tooth mill
Fig. 7 Various types of milling cutters
Shell end mill
T-slot end mill
Woodruff Keyslot end mill
Double-end end mill
Fig. 8 Various types of end mills
Gear tooth cutter
Corner rounding cutter
Concave formed cutter
Single angle cutter
Double angle cutter
Fig. 9 Angle, concave, convex, corner and gear cutters
Amount of travel using small diameter cutter
Direction of cut
Material being removed
Fig. 10 Effect of milling cutter diameter on workpiece travel
Fig. 12The standard milling machine arbor
Draw in bolt
Fig. 13 Arbor installation
Fig.11 Tapers used for Milling machine arborrs
Milling machine adapters
Fig. 16 Adapters
Fig. 17 Quick change adapter and tool holder.
The universal vise
Fig. 18 examples of various vises
Fig. 19 The index head and footstock
Fig.22 Various mounting tools
Angle plate V-Block and clamp V-clamp C- clamp
Fig. 20 Rotary table
Step block Bent tail machine clamp Finger machine clamp Strap clamp C- clamp
Fig. 23 locating keys or tongues on the underside of the vise bases should be located correctly in relation to the T-slots on the milling machine table vise.
Selection of Parallels
Centering of workpiece in vise
Locating the workpiece at end of vise
Fig. 24 correct mounting of workpiece in a vise
Fig. 25 using hold down straps
Brown and Sharpe type
Plate I - 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 holes
Plate 2 - 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 holes
Plate 3 - 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49 holes
First side - 24, 25, 28, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 holes
Second side - 46, 47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66 holes
a) Slab milling b) Face milling c) End milling
Fig. 27 Examples of Milling Cutters and Operations
Fig. 28 Face-milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling; (d) dimensions in face milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily the same as the cutter radius.
Fig. 29 (a) Slab milling operation, showing depth of cut, d, feed per tooth, f, chip depth of cut, tc, and workpiece speed, v. (b) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance lcto reach full depth of cut.
TABLE 1 Typical capacities and maximum workpiece dimensions for milling machines
Note: Larger capacities are available for special applications.
Note: The units given are those that are commonly used; however, appropriate units must be used in the formulas.
Fig. 31 A typical setup for plain milling
Fig. 34 Face milling
Fig. 32 is a typical example of angular milling.
Fig. 37 Form milling
Fig. 36 Gange milling.
Cutter centered over the shaft
Fig. 38 Fly cutting tools
Key is milled to required length
Fig. 40 Milling rounded end key slot waysKey is milled to required length
Fig. 41 T-slot milling cutter
Fig. 42 Parting of a solid stock