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Chapter4 - MILLING PROCESS . FIG. 1 Typical parts and shapes produced by various cutting processes . Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of milling machines . Fig. 3 Milling machines. Fig 4 Nomenclature of a common milling cutter . right hand cutter. Left hand cutter. right hand spiral.

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slide7

right hand cutter

Left hand cutter

right hand spiral

Left hand spiral

Fig. 5 Left and right hand cutters.

Helical

Plain

Fig. 6 Milling Cutters. a ) Helical b ) Plain

slide8

Helical mill

Slab mill

Course tooth mill

Helical mill (arbor type)

Metal slitting saw

Interloching mill

Sidemill

Staggered tooth mill

Fig. 7 Various types of milling cutters

slide9

Two-lip end mill

Shell end mill

T-slot end mill

Woodruff Keyslot end mill

Double-end end mill

Fig. 8 Various types of end mills

slide10

Covex formed cutter

Gear tooth cutter

Corner rounding cutter

Concave formed cutter

Single angle cutter

Double angle cutter

Fig. 9 Angle, concave, convex, corner and gear cutters

slide11

Amount of travel using large diameter cutter

Large diameter

cutter

Amount of travel using small diameter cutter

Direction of cut

Material being removed

workpiece

Small diameter

cutter

Fig. 10 Effect of milling cutter diameter on workpiece travel

slide12

Intermediate arbor support

Arbor support

Arbor

Spindle

Fig. 12The standard milling machine arbor

Draw in bolt

Arbor nut

Journal bearing

Milling cutter

Fig. 13 Arbor installation

Fig.11 Tapers used for Milling machine arborrs

slide14

Fig. 15 Typical Collet types

Milling machine adapters

Chuck adapter

Fig. 16 Adapters

Fig. 17 Quick change adapter and tool holder.

slide15

Standard machine table vise

swivel vise

The universal vise

Fig. 18 examples of various vises

Fig. 19 The index head and footstock

slide16

Fig. 21 Offset boring head

Fig.22 Various mounting tools

Angle plate V-Block and clamp V-clamp C- clamp

Fig. 20 Rotary table

Step block Bent tail machine clamp Finger machine clamp Strap clamp C- clamp

slide17

Fig. 23 locating keys or tongues on the underside of the vise bases should be located correctly in relation to the T-slots on the milling machine table vise.

Not correct

Correct

Workpiece

Vise

Parallel

Parallel

Selection of Parallels

Workpiece

Workpiece

Vise

Centering of workpiece in vise

Workpiece

Vise

Workpiece

Strap block

Locating the workpiece at end of vise

Fig. 24 correct mounting of workpiece in a vise

slide18

Fig. 26 The indexing plate

Fig. 25 using hold down straps

Brown and Sharpe type

Plate I - 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 holes

Plate 2 - 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 holes

Plate 3 - 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49 holes

Cincinnati type

First side - 24, 25, 28, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 holes

Second side - 46, 47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66 holes

slide19

a) Slab milling b) Face milling c) End milling

Arbor

Cutter

Spindle

Shank

Spindle

End mill

Arbor

e)

d)

Fig. 27 Examples of Milling Cutters and Operations

slide20

Fig. 28 Face-milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling; (d) dimensions in face milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily the same as the cutter radius.

slide21

(b)

(a)

v

f

v

Fig. 29 (a) Slab milling operation, showing depth of cut, d, feed per tooth, f, chip depth of cut, tc, and workpiece speed, v. (b) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance lcto reach full depth of cut.

slide22

TABLE 1 Typical capacities and maximum workpiece dimensions for milling machines

Note: Larger capacities are available for special applications.

slide23

TABLE 1 Parameters and formulae of the milling process

Note: The units given are those that are commonly used; however, appropriate units must be used in the formulas.

slide24

Fig. 33 Straddel milling of a hexagon

Fig. 31 A typical setup for plain milling

Fig. 34 Face milling

Fig. 32 is a typical example of angular milling.

slide25

Fig. 35 Face milling of angular surfaces

Fig. 37 Form milling

Fig. 36 Gange milling.

slide26

Fig. 39 The Woodruff key slot milling cutter

Cutter centered over the shaft

Fig. 38 Fly cutting tools

Key is milled to required length

Fig. 40 Milling rounded end key slot waysKey is milled to required length

slide27

Fig. 43 The splines are cut by straddle milling

Fig. 41 T-slot milling cutter

Fig. 42 Parting of a solid stock