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2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo A/B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles. Lesson 7 Morphology 2 (Analysing morphemes). Two methods. Dividing by hyphens. Two methods can be used to represent morpheme analysis: - - Using a tree diagram. Mehtod 1 – Dividing by hyphens.

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## 2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo A/B Introduction to English Linguistics prof. Hugo Bowles

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**2011-12 LINGUA INGLESE 1 modulo A/BIntroduction to English**Linguisticsprof. Hugo Bowles Lesson 7 Morphology 2 (Analysing morphemes)**Two methods**Dividing by hyphens Two methods can be used to represent morpheme analysis: - - Using a tree diagram**Mehtod 1 – Dividing by hyphens**Dividing by hyphens (trattini) is the simplest and easiest method for doing morphological analysis. How do you do it?**Step 1 – Find the root !**teach no root (it’s a base form) truth The root of the word is the base form towhich other bound morphemes are attached. Where is the root in: - teacher - paper - truthfulness**Find the roots the following words**• unwholesome • whole • rulership • rule • underdeveloped • develop • overachiever • achieve • operational • operate • indispensable • dispense**STEP 2 – Divide the bound morphemes**from the root with a hyphen root = + bound morpheme = + bound morpheme = e.g. truthfulness truth truth -ful truth-ful -ness truthful truth-ful-ness Answer = truth-ful-ness**Can you divide these words with hyphens?**• colourful • happiness • unbelievable • teacher • monster • rattlesnake colour-ful happi-ness un-believ-able teach-er monster rattle-snake**Method 2 – tree diagram**This involves dividing the word in terms of the grammatical functions of the morphemes and representing it as a tree. This is more difficult !**step 1 – divide the word using hyphens**truth-ful-ness truthfulness**step 2 – extract the words that are created by the**morphemes In the single word truthfulness we have actually found three words: truthfulness truthful truth (root) What is the grammatical function of these words?**step 3 – analyse the grammar of each word**noun (N) adjective (A) noun (N) In the single word truthfulness we have actually found three words: truthfulness truthful truth (root) What is the grammatical function of these words?**step 4 – start the tree from the root**- - Write the word at the bottom Attach the grammatical category of the root to the root N truth-ful-ness**step 5 – attach the grammatical category of the next word**truth – ful - ness A N**step 6 – attach the grammatical category of the next word**truth – ful - ness N A N**Another examplespecification**Step 1 – divide the word using hyphens specificationspecif-ic-ation**step 2 – extract the words**specification specific specify (root)**step 2 – extract the words**specification specific specify (root)**step 3 – analyse the grammar**specification (N) specific (A) specify (root) (V)**step 4 – start from the root**V specif - ic - ation**step 5 – add the next category**A V specif - ic - ation**Step 6 – add the next category**N A V specif - ic - ation**The structure is not always like this**• The structure of the tree will depend on how the word has been morphologically constructed. Sometimes the root is in the middle of the word or at the end of the word. This will change the structure of the tree. • Let’s try unwholesome**step 1 – divide the word**un-whole-some**step 2 – extract the words**unwholesome wholesome whole (root)**step 3 – analyse the grammar**unwholesome (A) wholesome (A) whole (root) (A)**step 4 – start from the root**A un – whole - some**step 5 – add the next category**A A un – whole - some**step 6 – add the next category**A A A un–whole - some**Draw tree diagrams for the following words**• rul-er-ship • under-develop-ed • over-achiev-er • operat-ion-al • in-dispens-able

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