BRIGHT NEW STAR OF EUROPE Traditional Romanian food and drinks by : Marc VodaDragos Marian VodaDragos AntalValentina StoianRazvan
. HISTORY OF ROMANIAN MOST IMPORTANT DISHES:
ROMANIAN CUISINE • Romanian cuisine is a diverse blend of different dishes from several traditions with which it has come into contact, but it also maintains its own character. It has been greatly influenced by Ottoman cuisine, while it also includes influences from the cuisines of other neighbors, such as Germans, Serbs, Bulgarians and Hungarians.
. • Quite different types of dishes are • sometimes included under a generic • term; for example, the category CIORBĂincludes a wide range of soups with a characteristic sour taste. These may be meat and vegetable soups, tripe (ciorbă de burtă) and calf foot soups, or fish soups, all of which are soured by lemon juice, sauerkraut juice, vinegar, ortraditionally borş. • The categoryȚUICĂ(plum brandy) is a generic name for a strong alcoholic spirit in Romania, while in other countries, every flavor has a different name.
DACIAN CUISINE • CHEESEwas known since Ancient history. BRÂNZĂis the generic word for cheese in Romanian.In addition to cheese, Dacians ate vegetables (lentil, peas, spinach, garlic) and fruits (grapes, apples, raspberries) with high nutritional value. • The Dacians produced WINEin massive quantities. Once,Burebista, a Dacian king, angered by the wine abuse of his warriors, cut the vines; his people gave up drinking wine.
ROMAN INFLUENCE • With Romans, came a certain taste, rooted in the centuries for the pastry made with cheese, like:alivenci, pască, or brânzoaice. The Romans, who ate millet porridge, introduced polenta.
MIDDLE AGES • MAIZEand POTATOESbecame staples of Romanian cuisine after their introduction to Europe. Maize in particular contributed to an increase in nutrition level and health of Romanian population in the 16th and 17th centuries, resulting in a population boom.
OTTOMAN INFLUENCE • For 276 years, Romania was under the rules of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish cuisine changed the Romanian table with appetizers made of eggplant, peppers or other vegetables, various meat preparations like spicy chiftele (deep-fried meat balls), and the famous mici(short sausages without casings, usually barbecued).
. • The various ciorbe (sour soups), and vegetables-and-meat stews, such as iahnie de fasole (beans), ardei umpluti (stuffed peppers), and sarmale (stuffed cabbage) are also of Turkish (and Arab) influence. The beloved rich (Romanian) tomato salad is a version of the Lebanese dish. And a unique procession of sweets, pastries combining honey and nuts, such asbaklava, sarailie (serai-gli), halva, and rahat(Turkish delight), which is nowadays used in cakes.
. • Romanian recipes bear the same influences as the rest of Romanian culture. The Turks have brought meatballs (perişoarein a meatball soup), from the Greeks there is musaca, from the Austrians there is the şniţel, and the list could continue. The Romanians share many foods with the Balkan area (in which Turkey was the cultural vehicle), with Central Europe (mostly in the form of German-Austrian dishes introduced through Hungary or by the Saxons in Transylvania) and Eastern Europe.
. • One of the most common meals is the mămăliga, a type of polenta, served on its own or as an accompaniment. • Porkis the main meat used in Romanian cuisine, but also beef is consumed and a good lamb or fish dish is never to be refused.
CHRISTMAS FOOD • Before Christmas, on December 20 (Ignat's Day or Ignatul in Romanian), a pig is traditionally sacrificed by every rural family. A variety of foods for Christmas prepared from the slaughtered pig consist of the following:
. • • Cârnați– sausages which may be smoked and/or dry-cured; • • Caltaboș– emulsified sausage based on liver with consistency from fine (pate) to coarse; • • Sângerete– (black pudding) an emulsified sausage obtained from a mixture of pig's blood with fat and meat, grain or bread crumbs and spices.
. • • Tobă– (headcheese) based on pig's feet, ears and meat from the head suspended in aspic and stuffed in pig stomach; • • Tochitură– pan-fried cubed pork served with mămăligă and wine ("so that the pork can swim"); • Piftie– inferior parts of the pig, mainly the tail, feet and ears, spiced with garlic and served in aspic; • • Jumări– dried pork remaining from rendering of the fat and tumbled through various spices;
CHRISTMAS DESERT • The Christmas meal is sweetened with the traditional cozonac, a sweet bread with nuts, poppy seeds or rahat (Turkish delight).
EASTER FOOD • At Easter, lamb is served: the main dishes are borș de miel(lamb sour soup), roast lamb and drob de miel– a Romanian-style lamb haggis made of minced offal (heart, liver, lungs) with spices, wrapped in a caul and roasted. • The traditional Easter cake is pască, a pie made of yeast dough with a sweet cottage cheese filling at the center.
. • Romanian pancakes, called clătite, are thin (like the French crêpe) and can be prepared with savory or sweet fillings: ground meat, cheese, or jam. • The apple pie is also a traditional Romanian sweet.
DRINKS • Wine is the preferred drink, and Romanian wine has a tradition of over three millennia. Romania is currently the world's 9th largest wine producer, and recently the export market has started to grow. • Romania produces a wide selection of domestic varieties (Fetească, Grasă, Tamâioasă, and Busuioacă), as well as varieties from across the world (Italian Riesling, Merlot, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Muscat Ottonel).
. • Beeris also highly regarded, generally blonde pilsner beer, made with German influences. There are also Romanian breweries with a long tradition. • According to the 2009 data of FAOSTAT, Romania is the world's second largest plum producer (after the United States), and as much as 75% of Romania's plum production is processed into the famous ȚUICĂ, a plum brandy obtained through one or more distillation steps.
. FOOD AND DRINKS, ROMANIAN OFTEN PREPARE
Drinks • 1.Cherry • 2.Fir syrup • 3.Eggnog
Cherry Ingredients: ● a kilo of ripedcherries ● 500 grams of sugar ● half liter of double refined alcohol -90 ° Method: Ripedcherries are put in a large glass bottlein layers, with sugar, one layer of cherries, one of sugar. They are let to soak for about a week, till the sugar has melted and has formed a syrup.Meanwhile, the bottle is daily shaken to mix the fruit with sugar. When the sugar has melted into a syrup,alcohol is addedand is left for anotherthree weeks, during which the bottle isconstantly shakenonce every two days; it has to be storedin a dark and cool place. After these three weeks, the drink is ready. The soaked cherries can be used to prepare cakes or they can simply be eaten.
Fir syrup • INGREDIENTS • tree kilos ok buds(3-4 cm long) • sugar • juice of one lemon • PREPARATION • The fir buds are cleaned and washed in cold water. They are covered in water (2 liters of water per one kilo of buds). • Boil them for one hour until they softened well. After that, the pot is removed from the heat and must be let to rest for 24 hours. • After the buds are pressed, to release all the juice, the liquid is swetened with sugar (one kilo of sugar per one liter of juice). Lemon juice is also added. The mixture thus obtained is boiled until starting to bind. • While the syrup is still hot, it is poured in bottles, left in the oven for five minutes on medium heat. Finally, the bottles are taken out,wrapped with a blanket and allowed to cool.
Eggnog • Ingredients: • - 5 eggs • - 500 ml whipped cream • - 1 sachet of vanilla bourbon • - 400 ml vodka • - 400 g sugar • Method • The sugar with the whipped cream and vanilla tea bag are mixed, then put on the fire and boil. When the sugar has melted, is taken off the fire. When it has cooled, the eggs yolks are added, than vodka. It has to be well stirred, put into bottles,into the refrigerator.
Appetizer 1.Lamb drob 2. Eggplant salad 3.Zacusca 4. Jellied pork
Lambdrob • Ingredients : • lamb giblets (heart , liver , kidney ) , 5oo gr chicken liver, 4 boiled eggs 4 raw eggs , 4 bunches of green onions, 3 parsley , dill , 2 slices of bread, a cup of milk, salt , pepper, bread crumbs, lamb caul . • Method: • Lamb innards and chicken livers are put in a saucepan with cold water for an hour, to get all the blood out of them. • Boil themin salted water. • We boil 4 eggs , for 5-6 minutes. • Green onions, parsley and dill are finely chop . • Let well cooked giblets cool. • Grind the meat with slices of bread soaked in milk. • Mix the meat with chopped herbs and raw eggs . • Season with salt and pepper. • In a cake pan that we anoint with oil and dusted with breadcrumbs, put the caul with the edges outside. • Fill the pan halfway with the composition of tripe, boiled eggs pour the rest over it. • Cover the meat with the caul`s edges. • Bake it for 40-45 min . • Remove from pan and slice after it has cooled .
Eggplant salad • Ingredients : • - 1.5 kg aubergines ( eggplants 4 medium ) • - 1/2 Onion • - 4 tablespoons oil • - Salt and pepper Preparation • Prick the eggplants all over with a fork and place them on a baking tray covered with baking paper. Put them in the oven at 200 degrees Celsius, or, on top of the cooking flame, for 45 minutes. Turn them occasionally. Baking time varies depending on the size of the eggplant . You can check if they are baked by pressing them with a fork - they are soft , they are ready . Remove them from the oven and cut each eggplant into 2 lengthwise . Peel them and place the eggplants in a colander core to drain for 15 minutes. Chop the eggplant and the onion. Embed oil then slowly, spoon by spoon the mayonnaise . Add salt and pepper .
Zacusca Ingredients : • 1 kg red peppers - Kapia • 1 kg of eggplant • 1 kg of tomatoes • Two peppers • 4 large onions • sweet paprika • few leaves of celery • salt and pepper • 250 ml sunflower oil • sliced mushrooms (optional ) • preparation: Preparation: Wash the vegetables. • Kapia,the chili peppers, the eggplants and tomatoes are baked well on a special baking sheet , on a low flame stove . Turn on all sides to bake evenly. • While hot, the roasted peppers , tomatoes and eggplants are inserted into a bag , which has to be well closed to produce steam inside; this way they will peel easily ( let the bag closed for about 20 minutes ) . • If you clean them under running water, you damage the baking aroma. • Chop the vegetables, along with the onion. • Heat some oil in a pot, add the onion and then the vegetables. • Add moderately salt, pepper and sweet paprika . • Finally add the eggplant and the chopped celery leaves . Let it simmer until zacuscagetSa creamy consistency .
Jellied pork • IngredIents: • ● 1 onion , • ● 2 carrots , • ● 1 parsnip , • ● 4 pig feet • ● a pinch of pepper, • ● a pinch of salt • ● 1 garlic clove. • PREPARATION OF PORK aspic • Pork jelly which is a complex prepared by the preparation is low , despite the fact that its cooking takes about 4 hours. From the above ingredients you can get 4 servings of pork jelly . • First clean and wash the feet well then put the whole pig in a large saucepan boil with carrots , onions, parsnips , pepper and salt to taste. Put water enough to cover them very well- about 7-8 inches above them. Cover the pan with a lid and allow to simmer until the meat falls off the bones. During boiling remove the foam several times with a spoon until the surface of the liquid is clear. • Remove the meat from the bones, put it separately on a plate and allow the broth to cool . When the broth has cooled , the fat is taken from above, then garlic is added; stir well and let it a few minutes.
Type 1 • 1.Soup salad • 2.Nettle Soup • 3.Bean soup • 4.Meatball Soup
Lettuce Soup/Nettle Soup • Ingredients: • * 1 or 2 green lettuce, depending on their size • * Bacon or smoked taste • * 1 medium onion • * Red Obadiah • * Approx. 100 g of yogurt or buttermilk • * 2 cloves of garlic • * 2 + 2 yolks eggs • * vinegar • Preparation: • Cut the bacon into strips and put it to fry in its own fat. Chop the onion and place it over the bacon till it gets brown too. Once browned add the salad and leave a few minutes. • Pour water over the ingredients. Let it boil until the salad gets tender. • Separately, beat 2 eggs and make an omelet. • Cut it into small pieces and add it to boil with other ingredients. • Add a liaison of egg yolks and yogurt, previously diluted with hot soup. Sour it with vinegar and sprinkle chopped parsley or fresh dill over it.
Beans soup • Ingredients : • 500 gr beans • 2 pcs onion • 1 carrot • two peppers • 6 small tomatoes ( cherry tomatoes ) • 1 tablespoon tomato paste • 1/2 small celery • 50 ml of oil • fresh parsley • salt and pepper to taste • Method: • Beans is put to soak over the night in water. It is then boiled and, after 10 min of boiling, the water is replaced by another . The procedure is repeated 2 times. • Wash and clean the vegetables , then cut them into cubes , without tomatoes. • Separately in a pot, hot some oil , add the vegetables and leave them a few minutes to get tender . • At the end, add the peeled tomatoes then simmer it over low heat for about 12 minutes. • Add salt and pepper to taste . • Remove from heat and add chopped parsley . • Serve warm .
Meatball soup • Meatball Soup Ingredients • 3 carrots (about 400 gr) • 1 turnip (about 100 gr) • 1 parsley root (about 150 gr) • 1 sliced celery (about 50 gr) • 1 small onion (about 50 gr) • 30 ml of oil • 8 pork ribs (or pork bones) • 1 tablespoon of salt • 1 small green pepper • 2 tomatoes • 1 lemon (or lemon or sour salt) • Meatball mixture • 700 gr minced meat • 1 medium onion • 120 g long grain rice • 1 teaspoon salt • 1 teaspoon pepper • 1 tablespoon flour • 10 threads parsley • 2 eggs • Preparation • All vegetables are put to cook in oil in a large pot . • Add the ribs ( or bones ) on top and cover them with water (about 3.5 liters of water ) . Add salt and pepper . • Chop the peppers and tomatoes and add them to the soup . Boil everything with a lid for about 45 minutes. Check the ribs to be cooked after 45 minutes and let them boil for a little longer if you have to. • * If you use bones, the soup is tasty , but the cooking time is longer-about 1 hour 30 minutes, even 2 hours remove the foam. • - Minced meat is good to be without fat. • - Meat is passed twice through the machine meat should be very soft . • In a bowl mix all meatball ingredients and knead them well . • With your wet hands form the meatballs the size of a walnut. • When the bacon has boiled, you can put the meatballs into the soup one by one, taking care to place them all over the pot , not crammed into one place. Simmer over medium heat for about 10 minutes. Meatballs that are cooked climb to the surface. While the meatballs cook soup sparklies. • After 10 minutes, turn off the heat , put the lid on the pot and let the soup cool . When the soup has cooled, you can sour it with lemon juiceor vinegar. • Serve the meatballs soup with sour cream and sprinkle it with chopped parsley .
Type 2 • 1.Mici • 2. Peasant potatoes with ham • 3. Stuffed peppers • 4.Sarmale
Mici • Ingredients • 1 kg ground beef with 20% fat • 200 ml beef broth • 5/4 thyme powder • 3/4 pepper • 5/4 allspice • 3/4 coriander • 1 fennel • 1/2 star anise (0.75 g) • 1 teaspoon of lemon juice or vinegar • 7/4 bicarbonate • 1 oil • 1 loaf garlic • Preparation • Mix the meat with all the spices. All spices should be pounded well. Crush the garlic and mix it with the meat. Form small pieces and put them on the grill to fry. • Serve them with fresh bread and mustard.
Peasant potatoes with ham • Ingredients • Red potatoes • 250 g smoked ham • one big onion • oil • A teaspoon of pepper • two teaspoons paprika • A teaspoon of salt • parsley • yogurt • water • Metod • Peel the potatoes and cut them into cubes or slices, as desired. Place boiled potatoes in salt water and a tablespoon of oil.. • In a pan heat the oil and fry the smoked ham and the onion. Mix them gently with the boiled potatoes, so as not to crush them, put them in the pan in a single layer and let them brown in the oven for 10-15 minutes. Check for salt and serve decorated with parsley or yogurt..
Stuffed peppers • Ingredients : • * 9-10 medium peppers • * 100 g rice • * 600 g minced meat • * 1 onion • * 1 carrot • * 1 egg • * 5-6 tomatoes or 2-3 tablespoons tomato paste or tomato juice 300ml • * 1 teaspoon paprika • * 1 teaspoon sugar • * 2 tablespoons flour • * oil • * 2 teaspoons salt • * 1 teaspoon pepper • Preparation: • Wash the peppers and clean the tabs . Wash the rice in several waters . Fry the chopped onion in a little oil until it becomes transparent . Add the drained rice and water, cook them for a little longer. Mix the onion and the rice with the meat and raw egg , grated or finely chopped carrots. Season everything with salt, paprika and pepper. • Fill peppers with this mixture. • Then peppers are placed in pot, with their base up . Add water enough to cover the peppers . Simmer them until the meat and the rice are done- an hour will be more than enough. • A sweet sauce, made from tomatoes and flour, with a pinch of sugar can be made.
INGREDIENTS • 1-2 sauerkraut • 1 kg minced pork • 1 cup rice (4-5 tablespoons ) • 1-2 medium onions • 200 g of Tomato Paste • salt, pepper , thyme, bay leaf , paprika , peppercorns • 2 to 3 tablespoons oil PREPARATION Choose fat pork meat ( thigh , ribs , neck ) and pass it through a meat grinder once . Another option is to chop both pork and beef, in equal amounts . Mix the minced meat with rice,after cleanedand washedin several waters ; addvery small diced onion , pepper , salt, bay leaves and 100 ml water . Cabbage leaves are separated from the costard.Place a cabbage sheet in theleft hand , near the wrist,add some meat, then roll the cabbagesheet with yourright hand . When you finished rolling, use the fingers of the right hand to place the edges of the cabbage inward and thus form sarmaua .Sarmalele must be boil inlarge containers; they have to be arranged concentrically in layers in the shape of a snail . Over the last layer,pourwater ( so as to cover the cabbage rolls ) , tomato paste and two tablespoons of lard. After giving the first boil, cabbage rolls are left to simmer on low heat for 2 hours.Optionally, after boiling them for two hours on the stove, stuffed cabbage can still be left to rest for20 minutes at preheated oven at 180 degrees . Sarmale/ Stuffed cabbage
dessert • 1.Cake • 2.Jam Horn • 3.Wasp's nest • 4.Plum Jam
Cake • Ingredients • 4 eggs • 8 tablespoons oil • 8 tablespoons flour • 8 tablespoons granulated sugar • 1 tablespoon cocoa • 1 sachet baking powder • 1 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar • Pinch of salt • 1 tablespoon powdered sugar • Optional cleaned and roasted walnuts • Preparation • To prepare the cake the eggs whites and yolks are separated. Place egg whites in a bowl top , add a powdered salt and beat them well with whisk (you can use your mixer ) . Slowly, incorporates the sugar and continue beating . Yolks , oil and flour are added . Composition should be a bit thicker than pancake . Finally, add the baking soda with vinegar or lemon juice and mix gently with a spoon. • Grease the cake pan with oil or butter, or use the baking paper . Three quarters of the composition is poured into the tray , and in the rest is added cocoa , then place it over the rest of the composition. Optionally you can add some roasted nuts. Insert it in the oven , bake for about 35-40 minutes. Sprinkle it with powdered sugar, after you have taking it out from the oven .
Jam Horn • Ingredients : • 600 g flour • 25 g fresh yeast • 50 g of sugar, • 50 ml of water , • 200 g butter, • 2 eggs • 150 g heavy cream , • one teaspoon vinegar. • 1/2 teaspoon salt • 400 g thick jam or marmalade, • 200 g vanilla sugar . • Preparation: • Step 1: Sift the flour into a bowl . • Rub the butter with 2 eggs to obtain a foam . • In a bowl, mix water, yeast and sugar , and then pourethe mixture into the bowl of flour. • Add the butter foam , cream , salt and a spoon of vinegar. • Knead the dough well , place it in plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes . • Spread the dough on an oiled board, cut long strips with width of 5 cm, then cut them diagonally to get rhombus with sides of 5 cm. • Place a piece of jam or marmalade and roll the dough. • Place them in a pan , on baking paper and bake them for 15-20 minutes until they get brown a little on top.
Wasp's nest • Ingredients hornet's nest • 400 gr flour • 40 g sugar • 1/2 teaspoon salt • 1 sachet dried yeast ( 8 grams ) • 1 sachet vanilla sugar • 2 eggs ( at room temperature) • 60 gr a molten • 80 ml milk ( warm ) • 60 ml of water ( warm ) • stuffing • 100 grams sugar • 150 g butter • 100 g ground nuts • cinnamon (optional ) • syrup • 150 ml water • 100 grams sugar
Plum jam • Ingredients: • 1 kg of pitted plums, (50-70 pcs.) • 1 kg sugar • the juice of half lemon • Preparation: • Wash, drain and remove the pits from the plums. Place them in alternate layers with sugar, in a pot, and let it rest until the next day, turning/stirring them carefully for several times. • Place the bowl on the stove, first on low heat, stirring constantly, until all the sugar melts, let it boil till it thickens. Towards the end of cooking add lemon juice . • This sweetness require little attention because it can stick to the bottom quickly. Because of this, you`ll have to stir it continuously using a wooden spatula.