Bu 604 Session 2. Introduction (Ch.1), Case Method and Open Systems. Agenda. Complete the Introduction to Bu 604 Discussion of the Case Method Open Systems, Organizational Behaviour and Case Analysis Case: Northwell Next Session.
Bu 604 Session 2 Introduction (Ch.1), Case Method and Open Systems
Agenda • Complete the Introduction to Bu 604 • Discussion of the Case Method • Open Systems, Organizational Behaviour and Case Analysis • Case: Northwell • Next Session
What Should the Psychological Contract be in this Classroom? • Norms? • Role of the Professor? • Role of the MBA Participants? • What should be your contribution? Mine?
Performance Expectations • Preparation requires an investment of approx. 7 to 9 hours per class • Active learning via collective involvement means all will be expected to prepare, attend, and participate • As professionals, participants are expected to submit assignments in a timely and high quality fashion • Deal rigorously with ideas, analysis and critique, but treat one another with respect and dignity
Performance Expectations - Professor • Structure course effectively and be prepared for class – deliver on course objectives • Be fair, consistent, helpful, and timely when dealing with students and when grading • Promote discussion and debate that advances learning • Treat the students as adults, deal with one another with dignity and integrity • ???
Case Studies • Case are real world descriptions of an organizations dealing with real issues • There is no “one right answer” - however there are more thorough analyses and more insightful and valuable courses of action • Read the case quickly and then carefully • Think about the data, their source(s) and their quality
Case Method • Interpreting, discerning and prioritizing complex data • Listen/read carefully and don’t jump to conclusions • Careful analyses • Consider alternatives and decision criteria • Develop a recommended plan of action
Case Studies (cont.) • What is the Problem(s) vs symptoms or secondary problems? • Analysis - the application of theories and concepts to make sense of the data • Solution Criteria - what should we measure the alternatives and action plan against • Alternatives - what are the strategic choices vs the laundry list • Recommended Action Plan - the time ordered sequence of conditional actions • Word Limits and the Use of the Executive Summary & Exhibits
Model Assumptions • Organizations are dynamic entities • Organizational behaviour exists at multiple levels • Organizational behaviour does not exist in a vacuum • Have the characteristics of open systems
Organizational Congruence Model TRANFORMATION PROCESS OUTPUT SYSTEMS LEVEL UNIT/GROUP LEVEL INDIVIDUAL LEVEL INPUT ENVIRONMENT (P.E.S.T.) RESOURCES HISTORY/ CULTURE Transformation Process Feedback Nadler, 1987
Dimensions of Environment • Simple Complex • Stable Dynamic
Organizational Congruence Model TRANFORMATION PROCESS INFORMAL STRUCTURE & PROCESS INDIVIDUAL OUTPUT SYSTEMS LEVEL UNIT/GROUP LEVEL INDIVIDUAL LEVEL INPUT ENVIRONMENT (P.E.S.T.) RESOURCES HISTORY/ CULTURE S T R A T E G Y FORMAL STRUCTURE WORK Nadler, 1987
Individual Outcomes Group Level Outcomes Organizational Outcomes Performance Absenteeism Turnover Attitudes – withdrawal / commitment Norms & Identity Cohesion Performance Group Satisfaction Efficiency & Effectiveness Financial Performance Innovation Customer/Market Measures etc Organizational Output & Effectiveness
Congruence/Incongruence & Coordination/Integration? • Environmental Factors and Strategy? • Strategy and Various Transformational Components? • People - Formal Systems/Processes? • People - Tasks? • People - Informal Organization? • Formal Systems/Processes - Tasks? • Formal Systems/Processes - Informal Organization? • Tasks - Informal Organization? • Desired Outputs, and Transformational Components?
Dynamic Complexity • Constantly changing • Tightly coupled • Governed by feedback • Nonlinearity • History-dependent • Self-organizing • Adaptive • Characterized by trade-offs • Counterintuitive • Policy Resistant
Flexibility External Focus Internal Focus Control Competing Values Framework
Exhibit 1-2 Skills in the New Workplace Flexibility Innovator Mentor Broker Facilitator Internal Focus External Focus Monitor Producer Coordinator Director Control
FLEXIBILITY HUMAN RESOURCE THINKING OPEN SYSTEMS THINKING EXTERNAL INTERNAL RATIONAL GOALS THINKING INTERNAL PROCESSES THINKING CONTROL
Northwell • What are the major and secondary strategic and management issues Northwell faces? • What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat related to the Virtual Mall initiative • What does the application of an open systems analytic approach tell you about the current situation at Northwell? • What should Claudia do?
Assignment for Next Week • Begin thinking about finalizing who you will be working with (approx. 5 per group) • Ch 5 and 11 - Teams and Team Decision Making • (I will bring the Desert Survival Material) • Case: Dividing the Pie • Desert Survival will be distributed in class