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Chapter Nine. Introduction. The largely unseen links that OTC derivatives created among global financial institutions made the entire system vulnerable to the weakest of those institutions.

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introduction
Introduction
  • The largely unseen links that OTC derivatives created among global financial institutions made the entire system vulnerable to the weakest of those institutions.
    • As a result of the systemic vulnerabilities posed by OTC derivatives lead to phrases of “too big to fail.”
  • Even before the 2007-2009 financial crisis, stories dealing with the abuse of derivatives abounded.
    • Enron
introduction1
Introduction
  • Although open to abuse, derivatives can be extremely helpful financial instruments.
  • They can reduce risk, allowing firms and individual to enter into agreements that they could not have otherwise.
  • Derivatives can also be used an insurance against future events.
  • This chapter will provide an introduction to the use and abuse of derivatives.
the basics defining derivatives
The Basics: Defining Derivatives
  • A derivative is a financial instrument whose value depends on, is derived from, the value of some other financial instrument, call the underlying asset.
    • Examples of assets include stocks, bonds, wheat, snowfall, and stock market indexes like S&P 500.
  • For example:
    • A contractual agreement between two investors that obligates one to make a payment to the other, depending on the movement of interest rates over the next year.
      • An interest-rate futures contract
the basics defining derivatives1
The Basics: Defining Derivatives
  • Derivatives are different from outright purchases because:
    • Derivatives provide an easy way for investors to profit from price declines.
    • In a derivatives transaction, one person’s loss is always another person’s gain.
      • Buyer and seller are like two people playing poker.
the basics defining derivatives2
The Basics: Defining Derivatives
  • While derivatives can be used to speculate, or gamble on future price movements, they allow investors to manage and reduce risk.
    • Farmers use derivatives regularly to insure themselves against fluctuations in the price of their crops.
  • The purpose of derivatives is to transfer risk from one person or firm to another.
the basics defining derivatives3
The Basics: Defining Derivatives
  • By shifting risk to those willing and able to bear it, derivatives increase the risk-carrying capacity of the economy as a whole.
    • This improves the allocation of resources and increase the level of output.
  • The downside is that derivatives also allow individuals and firms to conceal the true nature of certain financial transactions.
    • If stock-market analysts penalize companies for obtaining funding in certain ways, derivatives allow the companies to get exactly the same resources at the same risk but under a different name.
forward and futures
Forward and Futures
  • Aforward, orforward contract, is an agreement between a buyer and a seller to exchange a commodity or financial instrument for a specified amount of cash on a prearranged future date.
  • Because they are customized, forward contracts are very difficult to resell.
forward and futures1
Forward and Futures
  • A future, or futures contract, is a forward contract that has been standardized and sold through an organized exchange.
    • The contract specifies that the seller (short position) will deliver some quantity of a commodity or financial instrument to the buyer (long position) on a specific date, called the settlement or delivery date, for a predetermined price.
forward and futures2
Forward and Futures
  • No payments are made when the contract is agreed to.
  • The seller/short position benefits from declines in the price of the underlying asset.
  • The buyer/long position benefits from increases in the price of the underlying asset.
forward and futures3
Forward and Futures
  • For example: a U.S. Treasury bond future contract trades on the Chicago Board of Trade.
    • The contract specifies the delivery of $100,000 face value worth of 10-year, 6% coupon U.S. Treasury bonds at any time during a given month, called the delivery month.
  • Table 9.1 show the prices and trading activity for this contract on January 21, 2010.
forward and futures4
Forward and Futures
  • The two parties to a futures contract each make an agreement with a clearing corporation.
  • The clearing corporation operates like a large insurance company and is the counter party to both sides of the transaction.
    • They guarantee that the parties will meet their obligations.
  • This lowers the risk buyers and sellers face.
  • The clearing corporation has the ability to monitor traders and the incentive to limit their risk taking.
margin accounts and marking to market
Margin Accounts and Marking to Market
  • The clearing corporation requires both parties to a futures contract to place a deposit with the corporation.
    • This is called posting margin in a margin account.
    • This guarantees when the contract comes due, the parties will be able to meet their obligations.
margin accounts and marking to market1
Margin Accounts and Marking to Market
  • The clearing corporation also posts daily gains and losses on the contract to the margin account of the parties involved.
    • This is called marking to market.
    • This is similar to what happens in a poker game at the end of each hand - money is transferred from the winner to the loser.
  • Doing this each day ensures that sellers always have the resources to make delivery and buyers can always pay.
margin accounts and marking to market2
Margin Accounts and Marking to Market
  • If someone’s margin account falls below the minimum, the clearing corporation will sell the contracts, ending the person’s participation in the market.
hedging and speculating with futures
Hedging and Speculating with Futures
  • Futures contracts allow the transfer of risk between buyer and seller through hedging or speculation.
    • In the example of the sale of a U.S. Treasury bond future contract, the seller/short position benefits from the price declines.
      • The seller of the futures contract can guarantee the price at which the bonds are sold.
    • The purchaser wishes to insure against possible price increases.
hedging and speculating with futures1
Hedging and Speculating with Futures
  • Buying a futures contract fixes the price that the fund will need to pay.
    • In this example, both sides use the futures contract as a hedge - they are both hedgers.
  • Producers and users of commodities employ futures markets to hedge their risks as well: farmers, mining companies, oil drillers, etc.
    • They own the commodity outright, so they want to stabilize revenue streams.
    • Those buying want to reduce risk of fluctuations in input costs.
hedging and speculating with futures2
Hedging and Speculating with Futures
  • Speculators are trying to make a profit.
    • They bet on price movements.
      • Sellers of futures are betting that prices will fall.
      • Buyers of futures are betting that prices will rise.
  • Futures contracts are popular tools for speculation because they are cheap.
  • An investor needs only a small amount to invest - the margin - to purchase the future contract.
    • Margin requirements of 10% or less are common.
hedging and speculating with futures3
Hedging and Speculating with Futures
  • For our example of U.S. Treasury bonds futures contracts, The Chicago Board of Trade requires an initial margin of only $2,700 per contract.
    • This investment gives the investor the same returns as the purchase of $100,000 worth of bonds.
    • It is as if the investor borrowed the remaining $97,300 without having to pay any interest.
  • Speculators can use futures to obtain very large amounts of leverage at a very low cost.
slide21
How can we make markets more robust?
  • We can shift trading from over-the-counter (OTC) markets to transactions with a centralized counterparty (CCP).
  • When trading OTC with many partners, a firm can build up excessively large positions without other parties being aware of the risk.
  • A CCP has the ability, as well as the incentive, to monitor the riskiness of its counterparties.
slide22
Standardization of contracts also facilitates CCP monitoring.
  • A CCP can refuse to trade with a risky client or insist on a risk premium.
  • A CCP also limits its own risk through economies of scale.
    • Most trades are offset against one another.
  • Finally, CCPs have helped markets function well even when traders cannot pay.
arbitrage and the determinants of futures prices
Arbitrage and the Determinants of Futures Prices
  • On the settlement or delivery date, the price of the futures contract must equal the price of the underlying asset the seller is obligated to deliver.
    • If not, then it would be possible to make a risk-free profit by engaging in offsetting cash and futures transactions.
arbitrage and the determinants of futures prices1
Arbitrage and the Determinants of Futures Prices
  • The practice of simultaneously buying and selling financial instruments in order to benefit from temporary price differences is called arbitrage the people who engage in it are called arbitrageurs.
arbitrage and the determinants of futures prices2
Arbitrage and the Determinants of Futures Prices
  • If the price of a specific bond is higher in one market than in another:
    • The arbitrageur can buy at the low price and sell at the high price.
    • This increases demand in one market and supply in another.
    • The increase in demand raises price in that market.
    • The increase in supply lowers price in the other market.
    • This continues until the prices are equal in both markets.
arbitrage and the determinants of futures prices3
Arbitrage and the Determinants of Futures Prices
  • As long as there are arbitrageurs, on the day when a futures contract is settled, the price of a bond futures contract will be the same as the market price - or spot price - of the bond.
arbitrage and the determinants of futures prices4
Arbitrage and the Determinants of Futures Prices
  • How is this done?
    • The arbitrageur borrows at the current market interest rate.
    • These funds are used to buy a bond and sell a bond futures contract.
    • The interest owed on the loan and received from the bond cancel out.
    • The futures price must move in lockstep with the market price of the bond.

F(t)= S(t)* (1+r)^(T-t), where future/forward, F(t), will be found by compounding the present value S(t) at time t to maturity T by the rate of risk-free return r.

major exchange for future contracts
Major Exchange for Future Contracts
  • CME Group (formerly CBOT and CME) -- Currencies, Various Interest Rate derivatives (including US Bonds); Agricultural (Corn, Soybeans, Soy Products, Wheat, Pork, Cattle, Butter, Milk); Index (Dow Jones Industrial Average); Metals (Gold, Silver), Index (NASDAQ, S&P, etc.)
  • IntercontinentalExchange (ICE Futures Europe) - formerly the International Petroleum Exchange trades energy including crude oil, heating oil, natural gas and unleaded gas
major exchange for future contracts1
Major Exchange for Future Contracts
  • NYSE Euronext - which absorbed Euronext into which London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange or LIFFE (pronounced 'LIFE') was merged. (LIFFE had taken over London Commodities Exchange ("LCE") in 1996)- softs: grains and meats. Inactive market in Baltic Exchange shipping. Index futures include EURIBOR, FTSE 100, CAC 40, AEX index.
  • Tokyo Stock Exchange TSE (JGB Futures, TOPIX Futures)
calls puts and all that definitions
Calls, Puts, and All That: Definitions
  • Options are agreements between two parties.
    • The seller is an option writer.
    • A buyer is an option holder.
  • A call option is the right to buy, “call away”, a given quantity of an underlying asset at a predetermined price, called the strike price (or exercise price), on or before a specific date.
    • A Jan. 2011 call option on 100 shares of IBM stock at a strike price of 90 given the option holder the right to buy 100 shares of IBM for $90 each day prior to the 3rd Friday of Jan. 2011.
calls puts and all that definitions1
Calls, Puts, and All That: Definitions
  • The writer of the call option must sell the share if and when the holder choose to use the call option.
  • The holder of the call is not required to buy the shares - they have the option if it is beneficial.
  • When the price rises to about $90, the option holder can either call away the 100 shares by exercising the option or sell the option.
calls puts and all that definitions2
Calls, Puts, and All That: Definitions
  • When the price of the stock is above the strike price of the call option, exercising the option is profitable and the option is said to be in the money.
  • If the price of the stock exactly equals the strike price, the option is said to be at the money.
  • If the strike price exceeds the market price of the stock, it is termed out of the money.
calls puts and all that definitions3
Calls, Puts, and All That: Definitions
  • A put option give the holder the right but not the obligation to sell the underlying asset at a predetermined price on or before a fixed date
  • The writer of the option is obliged to buy the shares should the holder choose to exercise the option.
    • A put option on IBM stock with a strike price of $90 is the right to sell 100 shares at $90 per share.
    • This is valuable if the price falls below $90.
calls puts and all that definitions4
Calls, Puts, and All That: Definitions
  • The same terminology that is used to describe calls, is also used to describe puts:
    • In the money - profitable
    • At the money - same price
    • Out of the money - not profitable
calls puts and all that definitions5
Calls, Puts, and All That: Definitions
  • Although option scan be customized, most are standardized and traded on exchanges.
  • A clearing corporation guarantees the obligations embodied in the option -- those of the option writer.
    • The options writer is required to post margin.
    • The option holder incurs no obligation, so no margin is needed.
calls puts and all that definitions6
Calls, Puts, and All That: Definitions
  • There are two types of call and puts:
  • American options can be exercised on any date from the time they are written to the expirations date.
  • European options can be exercised only on the day they expire.
using options
Using Options
  • Options transfer risk from the buyer to the seller, so can be used for both hedging and speculation.
  • For someone who wants to purchase an asset in the future, a call option ensure that the cost of buying the asset will not rise.
  • For someone who plans to sell the asset in the future, a put option ensures that the price at which the asset can be sold will not go down.
using options1
Using Options
  • Options can be used for speculation as well.
  • Say you think interest rates are going to fall.
  • You can:
    • Buy a bond but that’s expensive as you need money.
    • Buy a futures contract taking the long position - low investment but high risk.
    • Buy a call option that pays off only if the interest rate falls - if you are wrong, only cost is the price of the option.
using options2
Using Options
  • The option writer can take a large loss, so who does this?
    • Speculators willing to take the risk and bet that prices will not move against them.
    • Dealers called market makers who engage in the regular purchase and sale of the underlying asset.
using options3
Using Options
  • Market makers both
    • Own the underlying asset so they can deliver it, and
    • Are willing to buy the underlying asset so they have it read to sell to someone else.
  • If you own the underlying asset, writing a call option that obligates you to sell it at a fixed price is not that risky.
  • Market makers write options to get the fees from the buyer.
using options4
Using Options
  • Options are very versatile and can be bought and sold in many combinations.
  • They allow investors to get rid of risks they do not want and keep the ones they do.
  • Finally, options allow investors to bet that prices will be volatile.
  • Table 9.3 summarizes options.
slide44
Corporations work hard to appear profitable.
  • Financial statements can be misleading.
  • Never trust a statement unless it meets regulatory standards.
  • The more open a company is in its financial accounting, the more likely that it is honest.
  • Diversification reduces risk.
pricing options intrinsic value and the time value of the option
Pricing Options: Intrinsic Value and the Time Value of the Option
  • An option has two parts:
    • Intrinsic value - the value of the option if it is exercised immediately, and
    • Time value of the option - the fee paid for the option's potential benefits.

Option price = Intrinsic value + time value of the option

Call Option Intrinsic Value = Underlying Stock's Current Price – Call Strike Price

Put Option Intrinsic Value = Put Strike Price – Underlying Stock's Current Price

Time Value = Option Price – Intrinsic Value

pricing options intrinsic value and the time value of the option1
Pricing Options: Intrinsic Value and the Time Value of the Option
  • We can calculate the time value of the option by calculating the expected present value of the payoff.
    • For a call option, we take the probability of a favorable outcome (a higher price), times the payoff.
    • Increasing the standard deviation of the stock price, an increase in volatility, increases the option’s time value.
general considerations
General Considerations
  • Calculating the price of an option and how it might change means developing some rules for figuring out its intrinsic value and time value.
  • Remember the value of any financial instrument depends on:
    • The size of the promised payment,
    • The timing of the payment,
    • The likelihood that the payment will be made, and
    • The circumstances under which the payment will be made.
general considerations1
General Considerations
  • The most important thing to remember is that a buyer is not bound to exercise the option.
  • Because the options can either be exercised or expire worthless, we can conclude that the intrinsic value depends only on what the holder receives if the option is exercised.
general considerations2
General Considerations
  • For an in-the-money call, or the option to buy, the intrinsic value to the holder is the market price of the underlying asset minus the strike price.
  • If the call is at the money or out of the money, it has no intrinsic value.
  • Similarly, the intrinsic value of a put, or the option to sell, equals the strike price minus the market price of the underlying asset, or zero - which ever is greater.
general considerations3
General Considerations
  • Prior to expiration, there is always the chance that the price of the underlying asset will move making the option valuable.
    • This potential benefit is represented by the option’s time value.
  • The longer the time to expiration, the bigger the likely payoff when the option does expire and, thus, the more valuable it is.
general considerations4
General Considerations
  • The likelihood that an option will pay off depends on the volatility, or standard deviation, of the price of the underlying asset.
    • The more variability there is in the asset’s price, the more chance it has to move into the money.
    • Therefore the option’s time value increases with volatility in the price of the underlying asset.
    • Increased volatility has no cost to the option holder - only benefits.
general considerations5
General Considerations
  • The bigger the risk being insured, the more valuable the insurance, and the higher the price investors will pay.
  • The circumstances under which the payment is made have an important impact on the option’s time value.
  • Table 9.4 summarizes the factors affecting the value of options.
slide54
The price of a company’s stock could skyrocket or the company could go bankrupt.
  • Generally employees are not allowed to sell their stock options for a set period of time and may need to stay with the firm to exercise them.
  • If taking stock options means a lower salary, then you are paying for them and should think hard about that offer.
  • Investing in the same company that pays your salary is risky.
the value of options some examples
The Value of Options: Some Examples
  • Table 9.5 shows the prices of IBM puts and calls on January 22, 2010, reported on the Wall Street Journal’s website.
  • Panel A shows the prices of options with different strike prices but the same expiration date, April 2010.
  • Panel B shows the prices of options with different expiration dates but with the same strike price.
the value of options some examples1
The Value of Options: Some Examples
  • What can we discover?
    • At a given price of the underlying asset and time to expiration, the higher the strike price of a call option, the lower its intrinsic value and the less expensive the option.
    • At a given price of the underlying asset and time to expiration, the higher the strike price of a put option, the higher the intrinsic value and the more expensive the option.
the value of options some examples2
The Value of Options: Some Examples
  • What can we discover (cont.)?
    • The closer the strike price is to the current price of the underlying asset, the larger the option's time value.
    • Deep in-the-money options have lower time value.
    • The longer the time to expiration at a given strike price, the higher the option price.