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Section 2 -Lower Federal Courts. Federal Judges:. Just like members of Congress do the work of the legislative branch, federal judges do the work of the judicial branch. A judge is supposed to be impartial, and not favor one political party over the other. Selection of Federal Judges.

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Section 2 lower federal courts

Section 2 -Lower Federal Courts

Federal judges
Federal Judges:

  • Just like members of Congress do the work of the legislative branch, federal judges do the work of the judicial branch.

  • A judge is supposed to be impartial, and not favor one political party over the other.

Selection of federal judges
Selection of Federal Judges

  • All federal judges are appointed by the President

  • confirmed by the Senate

  • They serve life terms and can only be removed by the impeachment process.

Judicial philosophy
Judicial Philosophy

  • Presidents often try to appoint judges that share their own point of view on key issues.

Presidents practice senatorial courtesy
Presidents practice Senatorial Courtesy

  • submits the name of a candidate for judicial appointment to the senators from the candidate’s state before formally submitting it for full senate approval.

  • If either of the Senators opposes the choice the President will w/draw the nomination.

Two types of federal courts
Two types of federal courts:

  • DistrictCourts

  • Legislative Courts

District courts
District Courts:

  • There are 94 district courts scattered across the US with more than 550 judges presiding over them.

  • KY has 2 district courts-East and West

  • Districts followed state boundary lines but as states grew, congress divided states into more than one district.

  • The Federal District courts were created as trial courts for both civil and criminal cases.

Two types of juries in criminal cases
Two types of Juries in criminal cases:

  • a grand jury- (16-23 people) hears charges against a person accused of a crime

  • If there is sufficient evidence to bring the person to trial they issue an indictment(formal accusation charging a person with a crime)

  • Each district has a US attorney to represent the US in all civil suits brought against the govt and to prosecute people charged with federal crimes.

  • A US Marshall carries out such duties as making arrests, securing jurors, and keeping order in the courtroom.

Federal court of appeals
Federal Court of Appeals

  • Congress created the US court of appeals to ease the appeals workload of the Supreme Court.

Federal appellate
Federal Appellate

  • 13 US court of appeals

  • The US is divided into 12 judicial circuits (regions) with 1 appellate court in each region.

  • The 13th court is a special appeals court with national jurisdiction.  

Legislative courts
Legislative Courts:

Help Congress exercise its power

  • The US claims court- claims against the US for money damages

  • US Tax Court-cases relating to federal taxes.

  • The Court of Military Appeals- Armed forces highest appeals court

  • Territorial Courts-Virgin Islands, Guam and Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico

  • Courts of DC-handles cases in DC-b/c it is a federal district

  • The US Court of Veteran’s Appeals

Section 3 overview of the supreme court

Section 3- Overview of the Supreme Court

Article iii
Article III

  • Created the Supreme Court

  • The main purpose is to serve as the final court of appeals for both the state and federal court systems.

  • IT is the court of last resort in all questions of federal law.

  • It’s the highest court in our federal court system.

Supreme court jurisdiction
Supreme Court Jurisdiction: it and carefully chooses the cases it will hear.

  • Original Jurisdiction:

    • Under original it hears 2 types of cases: cases involving representatives of foreign govt and cases disputes between states-this is a very small work load maybe 5 cases per year

      Appellate Jurisdiction- most of the cases the Supreme Court hears is on appeal.

Justices: it and carefully chooses the cases it will hear.

  • 9 Justices: 8 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice

  • The Constitution sets no qualifications for the Justices.

Want to work for the court
Want to work for the Court? it

  • Law clerks chosen by the justices help them research cases, summarize key issues in a case, and assist in writing drafts on justices opinions.

Appointing justices
Appointing Justices it

  • Justices are appointed by the president and must be approved by the Senate.

  • Political considerations often play a major part in presidential appointments to the court with members of the president’s own party being named if their prospects of winning senate approval are good.

  • The it American Bar Association- has played a role in the selection of justices by rating nominee’s qualifications.

  • Interest groups such as organized labor, civil rights groups, and the National Organization for

  • Women attempt to influence Senators voting on nominated justices.

  • Sitting SC justices may have considerable influence on the selection of new justices.