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Positive Physical Education. PUT YOUR NAME AND AFFILIATION HERE. NASPE Sets the Standard. Purpose of This Presentation. To guide you (and the others you will assist) in serving as an articulate spokesperson for physical education Accurate and succinct information (“talking points”)

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Positive physical education

Positive Physical Education


NASPE Sets the Standard

Purpose of this presentation
Purpose of This Presentation

To guide you (and the others you will assist) in serving as an articulate spokesperson for physical education

  • Accurate and succinct information (“talking points”)

  • Positive message

  • Staying on message

  • Convey the bottom line (“take home message”)


All physical education is not good physical education

Goal of physical education
Goal of Physical Education

  • To develop physically educated individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and confidence to enjoy a lifetime of healthful physical activity

  • To guide youngsters in the process of becoming physically active for a lifetime

Popular terms to describe good physical education
Popular Terms to Describe “Good” Physical Education

  • Quality physical education

  • Positive physical education

Positive physical education1
Positive Physical Education

  • Another term for quality physical education

  • Focus is on creating a positive environment in which all students can be successful

  • Recognition that enjoyment of physical activity is a major influence on whether a person chooses to be active

Positive quality physical education
Positive (Quality) Physical Education

  • Opportunity to learn

    • Qualified teachers

    • Adequate time

  • Meaningful content

    • National/state standards for physical education

  • Appropriate instruction

  • Formative and summative assessment

Examples of positive quality physical education
Examples of Positive (Quality) Physical Education

  • All children being active

    • Stations

    • Small group games

    • Technology (pedometers, heart rate monitors)

  • Choices

    • Variety of activities

    • Various practice levels

    • Personal goals

  • Cooperative Activities

Definition of a physically educated person
Definition of a Physically Educated Person

  • HAS learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities

  • IS physically fit

  • DOES participate regularly in physical activity

  • KNOWS the implications of and the benefits from involvement in physical activities

  • VALUES physical activity and its contribution to a healthful lifestyle

Purpose of national standards for physical education
Purpose of National Standards for Physical Education

  • To define what a student should know and be able to do as a result of a quality physical education program

  • Provides credibility to our profession as we are one of many disciplines with standards

National standards 2 nd edition
National Standards, 2nd Edition

  • Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities (Physical skills)

  • Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities (Knowledge)

  • Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity (Physical activity)

National standards 2 nd edition1
National Standards, 2nd Edition

  • Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of physical fitness(Health-related fitness)

  • Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings (Behavioral skills)

  • Standard 6:Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction (Intrinsic value)

Physical activity vs physical education
Physical Activity vs. Physical Education

  • Physical activity = behavior

  • Physical education = curricular area that teaches about physical activity (helps student attain the knowledge and skills; does not just provide an opportunity for students to be physically active)

  • Students are physically active in physical education, but students are not (comprehensively) physically educated at recess or through sport participation

Recommended amounts of physical activity and education
Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity and Education

  • Physical activity

    • At least 60 minutes, and up to several hours, a day of physical activity

      • NASPE

      • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Federal government)

  • Physical education

    • ES: at least 150 minutes/week

    • MS, HS: at least 225 minutes/week

      • NASPE

      • Others that support the NASPE recommendation (e.g., CDC)

Percentage of u s high school students who attended physical education classes daily 1991 2001
Percentage of U.S. High School Students Who Attended Physical Education Classes Daily, 1991 - 2001

Source: CDC, National Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Percentage of schools that require physical education by grade

60 Physical Education










Percent of schools
























Percentage of Schools that Require Physical Education, by Grade

CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study, 2000

Daily physical education for all students
Daily Physical Education Physical Education for All Students

Daily PE or its equivalent* is

provided for entire school year

for students in all grades in:

  • 8% of elementary schools (excluding kindergarten)

  • 6% of middle/junior high schools

  • 6% of senior high schools

  • *Elementary schools: 150 minutes / week;

  • secondary schools: 225 minutes / week

Source: CDC, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000

Percentage of u s children and adolescents who were overweight
Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who Were Overweight*

Ages 12-19



Ages 6-11

* >95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts

**Data are from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of age

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Percentage of u s children and adolescents who were overweight1
Percentage of U.S. Children and Adolescents Who Were Overweight*



Ages 12-19



Ages 6-11

* >95th percentile for BMI by age and sex based on 2000 CDC BMI-for-age growth charts

**Data are from 1963-65 for children 6-11 years of age and from 1966-70 for adolescents 12-17 years of age

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity
Prevention of Pediatric Overweight*Overweight and Obesity

  • American Academy of Pediatrics - August, 2003

  • Probability of childhood obesity persisting into adulthood…

    • 80% during adolescence

    • 20% at 4 years of age

    • Probability that co-morbidities will persist into adulthood

  • AAP, Policy Statement, Pediatrics 112(2), pp.424-430

Economic costs
Economic Costs Overweight*

  • US obesity-attributable medical expenditures in 2003:

    • $75 billion

    • Approximately 10% of total US medical expenditures

  • Percent financed by taxpayers through Medicare and Medicaid

    • Approximately 50%

Which begs the question
Which begs the question… Overweight*

What might the statistics look like if kids in the U.S. had positive, daily physical education for 12 years of school?

The good news

The Good News Overweight*

Recognized solutions
Recognized Solutions Overweight*

  • Physical activity

  • Physical education

Physical education s role in the obesity epidemic
Physical Education’s Role in the Obesity Epidemic Overweight*

  • Physical inactivity is part of the problem

  • Physical activity is part of the solution

  • Physical education is a critical to increasing physical activity

    • School physical education programs are the one place that:

      • All children can participate in regular physical activity

      • All children can become physically educated for a lifetime of physical activity

National call to action increase physical activity among youth
National Call to Action: Increase Overweight*Physical Activity Among Youth

  • Healthy People 2010 (2000)

  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2000)

  • Promoting Better Health for Young People Through Physical Activity and Sports: A Report to the President from the Secretary of Health and Human Services and Secretary of Education (2000)

  • The Surgeon General’s Call to Action To Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (2001)

  • Guide to Community Preventive Services (2001)

The brain body connection
The Brain/Body Connection Overweight*

  • Research has not been conducted to conclusively demonstrate a link between physical activity and improved academic performance

  • However, such a link might be expected

  • Research does show that:

    • Movement stimulates brain functioning

    • Physical activity increases adolescents’ self-esteem and reduces anxiety and stress…thus, through it’s effects on mental health, may help increase students’ capacity for learning

    • Increases in time for physical education did not lead to lower test scores

Time in the arts physical education and school achievement
Time in the arts, physical education and school achievement Overweight*

  • 547 elementary school principals in Virginia responded to survey

  • Time allocated for art, music and physical education with a specialist?

  • Correlated with test scores from their schools

  • No meaningful relationship found

  • Results suggest that providing time for AMPE does not negatively impact test scores

  • Wilkins, J..M., Graham, G., Parker, S., Westfall, S. Fraser, R. & Tembo, M. (2003).

  • Time in the arts and physical education and school achievement. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 35, 721-734.

The relationship between fitness levels and academic achievement in california grade 7
The Relationship Between Fitness Levels and Academic Achievement, in California Grade 7

Typical questions you may be asked
Typical Questions Achievement, You May be Asked

  • How much physical activity do children and adolescents need?

  • What is the most important thing that schools can do to increase physical activity among children and adolescents?

  • What are the biggest barriers for schools to provide quality physical education to all students?

  • Can’t physical education be provided as part of recess?

  • Why do schools have to take responsibility for the physical activity of students?

Conclusion Achievement,

  • Schools need to educate the whole child

  • Physical education is the only curricular subject that develops a child’s physical self

  • Children deserve a comprehensive education

    • It’s up to taxpayers and decision-makers to make this happen

    • It’s up to us (and our partners) to influence taxpayers and decision-makers

Resources Achievement,









Interscholastic sports

Interscholastic Sports Achievement,

SS 271

Dr. Jack Watson

Topical outline
Topical Outline Achievement,

  • Educational mission

  • Involvement Patterns

  • Predications about the impact of sport on athletes and schools

  • Consequences of H.S. sports

  • Problems related to H.S. sports

  • Reforms suggested for H.S. sports

  • Summary

  • Discussion Questions

Why were interscholastic sports created and why do they still exist
Why Were Interscholastic Sports Created, and Why Do They Still Exist?

  • What are the educational goals of most high schools?

  • How do sports fit into a schools goals?

  • How do sports benefit schools?

  • How do sports benefit athletes?

  • How do sports socialize individuals into society?

Involvement patterns
Involvement Patterns Still Exist?

  • 6.5 million boys and girls involved in high school sports (59% male)

  • Sports are run through the schools, not clubs, as done in Canada and Europe

    • Money given to sports

    • Popularity of sports

    • Emphasis in school’s mission

Predicted effects of participation in high school sports on athletes
Predicted Effects of Participation in High School Sports on Athletes

  • Grades?

  • Socialization?

  • Popularity?

  • Opportunities?

  • Money?

  • Self-Concept?

Sports in u s high schools
Sports in U.S. High Schools Athletes

  • Importance

    • Related to academics

  • Attention

  • Bringing students together

  • Participant effects on athletes

    • Popularity and other effects on athletes

Consequences of h s sports

Schools Athletes

Raise money from community for resources

Brings students together (unity) for common cause or collective goals

Promotes school pride (“we” talk)

Forces commitment to rules (creates role-models), promotes social control

Teaches societal/school values

Stops students form questioning the rules

Drains energy and diverts attention


Fame and acclaim


Social/Sexual Popularity

Always good for males

Can be good for females, with “in-group status” (changing)


Who benefits and how?

Common differences in boys include higher Self-esteem, aggression, and irritability, less honesty, independence and self-control

In girls, related to increased perceived popularity, educational aspirations

Adjustment to Failure

Consequences of H.S. Sports

Consequences of h s sports on students
Consequences of H.S. Sports on Students Athletes

  • Enjoyment of students

  • Participation may be expected of students

  • Lower moral development and reasoning

  • Academic Benefits

    • Can detract from academics

    • Overall, grades are better

    • Why might this occur?

  • Reasoning for higher GPA’s

    • Minimum grades needed for participation

    • Selection of those into sport (some may choose not to participate)

    • Causal relationship?

Problems and controversies related to interscholastic sports
Problems and Controversies Related to Interscholastic Sports Athletes

  • Cheating is Rampant

    • Not consistent with academic goals of sport

  • Autocratic Coaches

    • Control all aspects of players lives

  • “Win at all costs” Attitude

    • Sport is treated as work, not play

    • Teaches the cheating is acceptable

  • Promotes Specialization by athletes

  • Corporate sports (Friday Night Lights)

    • Lots of $ spent on sports (stadiums, equipment, travel)

    • Exposure and commercialization

    • Channeling athletes into pros (early recruiting)

    • Coaches paid much more than teachers

Problems and controversies related to interscholastic sports cont
Problems and Controversies Related to Interscholastic Sports (Cont…)

  • Demanding Schedules: take time away from school work.

  • Begin too early: serve as a feeding ground/minor league for H.S. sports.

  • Reinforcing Gender Roles: 900% increase in female participation from 1971

  • Budget problems

    • schools charge for right to play

    • sponsorship is accepted

  • Elitism (only the few play)

    • how is this educational

Reforming interscholastic sports
Reforming Interscholastic Sports

  • Reduction of corporate sports

    • Reduce schedules and travel

  • Raise educational standards for athletes

  • Let everyone play

  • Increase student involvement

  • Bring coaches back to faculty

Topical summary
Topical Summary

  • Educational mission

  • Involvement Patterns

  • Predications about the impact of sport on athletes and schools

  • Consequences of H.S. sports

  • Problems related to H.S. sports

  • Reforms suggested for H.S. sports

Chapter 5 discussion questions
Chapter 5 Discussion Questions

  • Can a system be developed that allows all interested H.S. students to participate in sports? If so, how would you do it? If not, what factors would make doing it impossible?

  • What is an interscholastic coach’s role in fostering character development among players? Is this role consistent with educational and athletic goals?

  • What differences, if any, exist in the sport programs of public and private high schools.

  • What role, if any, do H.S. athletic coaches have youth sport development?