Introduction Reproductive System. Dr. Amel Eassawi. Objectives. Know the functional anatomy of male & female reproductive system. Describe how the chromosomal content determines the sex of an embryo and how this relates to the development of testes or ovaries.
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Components of Reproductive System:
1. Primary reproductive organ (Gonads)
2. Reproductive tract
3. Accessory sex glands
4. External genitelia
Secondary Sexual Characteristics:
1. Primary Reproductive Organs (gonads)
2. Reproductive Tract:
3. Accessory Sex Glands:
4. External Genitalia:
Functions and Organs:
Function: Production of sperm (spermatogenesis).
Secretion of testosterone.
Accessory Sex Glands
Function:Secretions provide bulk of semen (liquid substance that is conducive to sperm viability)
Function: Organ used to deposit semen in female
Male Reproductive Tract
Function: Empty into urethra (canal running length of penis that empties into exterior)
Functions and Organs
Function:Production of ova (oogenesis).
Secretion of estrogen & progesterone.
Female Reproductive Tract
Function: Pick up ova on ovulation, serve as site for fertilization
Serves as pathway for sperm through the uterus to the site of fertilization
Serves as passageway for delivery of baby from uterus
Function:Connects uterus to external environment
Located in perineal region between urethral opening and anal opening
Partially covered by thin mucous membrane, hymen
Skin folds that surround vaginal and urethral openings
Small erotic structure located at anterior end of folds of labia minora
Body (somatic) cells
Gametes (sperm and egg)
Has two X chromosomes
Has an X and a Y chromosome
Depends on combination of sex chromosomes at time of conception
Whether testes or ovaries develop
Presence or absence of Y chromosome determines gonadal differentiation
Apparent anatomic sex of individual
Determined by gonadal sexSex Determination
1. 5 α DHT reductase must be present at adequate levels in cells of precursor structures during the critical 9 – 13 week period of gestation in order for differentiation into male external genitalia.
2. An absence of this enzyme in male fetuses during that period (5 αreductasedeficiency) leads to female appearing external genitalia.
Discrepancies occur between genetic and anatomic sexes
1. Male Pseudo Hermaphrodite:
2. Female Pseudo Hermaphrodite:
Four possible defects produced by maternal non-disjunction of the sex chromosomes at the time of meiosis