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Integrated Assessment. How do we approach this?. Integrated Assessment. What do we mean by integration? What are the elements that we should assess? How far have these been assessed? What else can we assess?. Regular process for global reporting and assessment of the state

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Integrated Assessment

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integrated assessment

Integrated Assessment

How do we approach this?

integrated assessment1
Integrated Assessment
  • What do we mean by integration?
  • What are the elements that we should assess?
  • How far have these been assessed?
  • What else can we assess?
this includes a massive range

Regular process for global reporting and assessment of the state

of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects

This includes a massive range
the third dimension of integration
The third dimension of integration

Bringing together:

  • Environmental
  • Economic
  • Social
putting this together
Putting this together

The main sections of the Possible Outline of the First Global Integrated Assessment:

Part III – Ocean Processes

Part V – Human Activities

Part VI – Marine Biodiversity

Integrated under

Part IV – Food Security & Safety – as a cross-cutting issue

Part VII – Overall Integration

integrating environmental assessment
Integrating environmental assessment

The environmental aspects are themselves a matrix of interactive elements:

  • Geological structure (rocks, sediments…)
  • Water column (water quality, temperature, salinity, currents,…)
  • Biota (the different trophic levels)

Can we measure whether we have overall a healthy and sustainable marine environment?

how to envisage this ecosystem envelope the allium analogue
How to envisage this ecosystem envelope?The allium analogue

Regular process for global reporting and assessment of the state

of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects

  • Drivers – the underlying forces that drive change in the environment – both material and societal.
  • Pressures – the channels through which these forces affect the environment – again, both material and societal;
  • States – the resulting states of the environment, including socio-economic uses of it;
  • Impacts – the resulting impacts of these pressures and states on biological diversity and human well-being.
  • Responses – the ways that society has responded and the results of those responses –

But we must NOT get into discussions of policy.

measuring the vectors
Measuring the vectors
  • Physical elements (Oceanography – geology, currents, sedimentation…..)
  • Chemical elements (Water quality – salinity, nutrients, contaminants…..)
  • Biological elements (Numbers, health and reproductive success of the various species…..)
range of vectors
Range of Vectors
  • In each broad division we need to consider a wide range of elements
  • For example, among the biological elements, we must consider at least 9 categories:
    • Phytoplankton - Zooplankton
    • Macrophytes - Crustacea and molluscs
    • Other benthic species
    • Fish - Marine Reptiles
    • Sea Birds - Marine Mammals
selecting information
Selecting information

What can be crucial to avoid information overload? Possible criteria include:

  • The miner’s canary
  • Keystone functions
  • Predominant species
  • Economically significant species
  • Boundary conditions
cbd fao
  • Ecologically and biologically significant areas
  • Vulnerable marine ecosystems


Aggregating Measures (summarising the combined effects of different elements):

Especially top predators, for example, in the North Sea:

  • grey seals
  • sea-bird populations

Measurements that can link S (status) to P (pressures)

For example:

  • mercury and/or organochlorine compounds in sea-bird eggs
  • proportion of dead sea-birds found with oil contamination on shore-lines.
  • satellite surveillance of chlorophyll a concentrations in surface sea water.
integrating economic assessment
Integrating economic assessment

Levels of economic activity

Inputs & External Outputs burdens

Economic Use of

outcomes capital

levels of economic activity
Levels of economic activity
  • What are the levels of maritime economic activities?
  • How are these levels changing?
  • Can we assess the factors that are leading to these changes?
inputs and outputs
Inputs and outputs

The availability of inputs, such as:

  • Trained manpower;
  • Necessary equipment;
  • Knowledge of how to operate;
  • Knowledge of the state of the oceans;

affects the outputs from maritime economic activities.

Can we assess how the balance is changing?

external burdens
External burdens
  • Taking benefits from the oceans involves both internal and external burdens.
  • Internal burdens are those carried by the people who receive the benefits.
  • External burdens are those which are suffered by everyone else (including damage to the environment)
  • The “polluter pays” principle aims to minimise external burdens
  • Can we assess where the polluter is not paying?
economic outcomes
Economic outcomes

What are the economic outcomes of the human uses of the marine environment?

  • Outcomes for livelihoods
  • Outcomes for communities dependent on the marine environment
  • Wealth generation
use of capital
Use of capital
  • What is the level of capital use in maritime economic activities?
  • What are the links between the levels of maritime economic activities and the capital employed?
  • Can we assess the factors affecting the provision of capital to maritime activities?
integrating social assessment
Integrating social assessment

A spectrum of relationships between societies and the seas:

  • Social groups who earn a living entirely at sea
  • Social groups part of whose livelihood comes from the sea
  • Communities dependent on those who earn their living from the sea
  • Social groups who have intermittent contact with the sea
  • Social groups who rarely even see the sea
social aspects
Social aspects
  • Health
  • Income levels and livelihoods
  • Degree of community dependency
  • Other aspects of well-being (relaxation, aesthetic enjoyment….)

Relevant statistics on health could include

  • Life expectancy of those in marine work;
  • Injury rates of those in marine work;
  • Distribution and impact of marine-related illnesses
livelihoods of marine workers
Livelihoods of marine workers

How can we assess the livelihoods of those wholly or partially dependent on the marine environment?

Relevant statistics on income of marine workers could include:

  • Levels in different parts of the world;
  • Relative levels of pay for marine work compared with pay for other work within the region
community dependency
Community dependency

How can we assess the extent to which communities are dependent on the sea?

Are there assessments of the reliance of societies on the marine environment?